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Human Anatomy & Physiology Premium Course

Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course

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Students who desire credit hours for this correspondence subcourse must meet eligibility requirements and must enroll through the Nonresident Instruction Branch of the U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School (AMEDDC&S).

Application for enrollment should be made at the Internet website: http://www.atrrs.army.mil. You can access the course catalog in the upper right corner. Enter School Code 555 for medical correspondence courses. Copy down the course number and title. To apply for enrollment, return to the main ATRRS screen and scroll down the right side for ATRRS Channels. Click on SELF DEVELOPMENT to open the application and then follow the on screen instructions.

In general, eligible personnel include enlisted personnel of all components of the U.S. Army who hold an AMEDD MOS or MOS 18D. Officer personnel, members of other branches of the Armed Forces, and civilian employees will be considered eligible based upon their AOC, NEC, AFSC or Job Series which will verify job relevance. Applicants who wish to be considered for a waiver should submit justification to the Nonresident Instruction Branch at e-mail address: [email protected].

For comments or questions regarding enrollment, student records, or shipments, contact the Nonresident Instruction Branch at DSN 471-5877, commercial (210) 2215877, toll-free 1-800-344-2380; fax: 210-221-4012 or DSN 471-4012, e-mail [email protected], or write to:

NONRESIDENT INSTRUCTION BRANCH

AMEDDC&S

ATTN: MCCS-HSN

2105 11TH STREET SUITE 4191

FORT SAM HOUSTON TX 78234-5064

INTRODUCTION vii

1 INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 1-1--1-10 1-2

Exercises 1-7

2 PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS AND MISCELLANEOUS TISSUES

Section III. Homeostasis 2-10--2-14 2-8

Section IV. Cell Growth and Multiplication 2-15--2-16 2-11

Section V. Epithelial Cells and Tissues 2-17--2-22 2-11

Section VI. Fibrous Connective Tissue (FCT) 2-23--2-27 2-13

Section VII. Fatty Tissues 2-28--2-35 2-15

Exercises 2-17

3 ENVELOPES OF THE BODY

Section I. Introduction 3-1--3-3 3-2

Section II. Integument Proper 3-4--3-10 3-3

Section III. Integumentary Derivatives 3-11--3-14 3-5

Section IV. Functions of the Integumentary System.. 3-13--3-19 3-6

Section V. Subcutaneous Layer 3-20--3-22 3-7

Section VI. Investing Deep Fascia 3-23--3-25 3-8

Section VII. Body Temperature Control 3-26--3-31 3-9

Section VIII. Vitamin D Production 3-32--3-34 3-11

Section IX. Superficial Wound Healing 3-35--3-38 3-12

Section X. General Adaptations of Grasping/

Section XI. Variations in Penetration 3-41--3-42 3-13

Exercises 3-14

4 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

Section II. Tissues and Tissue Processes of Skeletal Elements 4-3--4-5 4-2

Section III. Definition and Types of Bones 4-6--4-7 4-3

Section IV. A "Typical" Long Bone 4-8--4-9 4-4

Section V. A "Typical" Flat Bone 4-10--4-12 4-7

Section VI. Sesamoid Bones 4-13--4-14 4-9

Section VII. Definition and Types of Joints 4-15--4-18 4-9

Section VIII. A "Typical Synovial Joint 4-19--4-26 4-10

Section IX. The Axial Skeleton 4-27--4-35 4-12

Section X. The Appendicular Skeleton 4-36--4-40 4-17

Exercises 4-19

5 PHYSIOLOGY AND ACTIONS OF MUSCLES

Section I. Muscle Tissues 5-1--5-5 5-2

Section II. Skeletal Muscles 5-6--5-14 5-5

Section III. Some Skeletomuscular Mechanics 5-15--5-20 5-9

Section IV. Nervous Control of Skeletal Muscles 5-21--5-24 5-13

Exercises 5-16

6 THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction 6-1--6-3 6-2

Section II. Ingestion and Initial Processing of Foods. 6-4--6-7 6-5

Section III. Swallowing (Deglutition) 6-8--6-11 6-6

Section IV. Temporary Storage 6-12--6-14 6-7

Section V. Digestion and Absorption 6-15--6-22 6-8

Section VI. Some Protective Mechanisms Associated with the Human Digestive System 6-23--6-30 6-11

Section VII. Vitamins 6-31--6-33 6-13

Section VIII. Elimination of Unused Materials 6-34--6-37 6-14

Exercises 6-16

7 THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND BREATHING

Section I. Introduction 7-1--7-4 7-2

Section II. Introduction to Human Breathing 7-5--7-9 7-4

Section III. Costal ("Thoracic") Breathing 7-10--7-13 7-6

Section IV. Diaphragmatic ("Abdominal") Breathing . 7-14--7-17 7-9 Section V. Introduction to the Human Respiratory

Section VI. The Supralaryngeal Structures 7-20--7-24 7-10

Section VIII. The "Respiratory Tree" and Pulmonary

Section IX. Lungs and Pleural Cavities 7-35--7-37 7-16

Section X. The Pulmonary NAVL 7-38--7-39 7-18

Section XI. Exchange and Transportation of Gases:

Artificial Breathing/Resuscitation 7-40--7-41 7-19

Exercises 7-22

8 THE HUMAN URINARY SYSTEM

Section II. Other Parts of the Human Urinary

Exercises 8-7

9 THE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE (GENITAL) SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction 9-1--9-7 9-2

Section III. The Male Reproductive System 9-11--9-13 9-4

Section IV. The Female Reproductive System 9-14--9-18 9-7

Section V. Intrauterine Development 9-19--9-20 9-11

Section VI. Parturition 9-21--9-23 9-11

Exercises 9-13

10 CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY

Section I. Introduction 10-1--10-8 10-2

Section II. The Blood--The Vehicle of the

Cardiovascular System 10-9--10-17 10-5

Section III. The Blood Vessels--The Conduits of the

Cardiovascular System 10-18--10-22 10-9

Section IV. The Heart--The Primary Motive Force of the Cardiovascular System 10-23--10-31 10-12

Section V. Motive Forces Involved in Driving the

Blood Through the System 10-32--10-34 10-18

Section VI. Capillaries 10-35--10-37 10-19

Section VII. Temperature Control by Means of the

Section VIII. Other Circulatory Systems 10-44--10-45 10-21

Exercises 10-23

11 THE HUMAN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction 11-1--11-3 11-2

Section II. The Pituitary Body 11-4--11-6 11-3

Section III. The Pineal Gland 11-7--11-8 11-4

Section IV. The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 11-9--11 -10 11-5

Section V. The Pancreatic Islets (Islands of

Langerhans) 11-11--11-12 11-5

Section VI. The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands 11-13--11-15 11-6

Section VII. The Gonads as Endocrine Glands 11-16--11-18 11-6

Exercises 11-8

12 THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM

Section I. Introduction 12-1--12-4 12-2

Section II. The Central Nervous System (CNS) 12-5--12-7 12-4

Section III. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 12-8--12-9 12-9

Section IV. The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)... 12-10--12-13 12-10 Section V. Electrochemical Transmission of Neuron Impulses 12-14--12-19 12-12

Section VI. The General Reflex and the Reflex Arc.. 12-20--12-21 12-14 Section VII. General Sensory Pathways of the Human Nervous System 12-22--12-27 12-16

Section VIII. Motor Pathways in the Human

Nervous System 12-28--12-30 12-21

Section IX. Levels of Control in the Human

Nervous System 12-31 --12-35 12-22

Section X. Miscellaneous Topics 12-36--12-38 12-25

Exercises 12-26

13 THE SPECIAL SENSES

Section I. Introduction 13-1--13-2 13-2

Section II. The Special Sense of Vision 13-3--13-9 13-2

Section III. The Special Sense of Hearing (Auditory

Section IV. The Special Sense of Equilibrium, the General Body Sense, and Postural

Reflexes 13-15--13-20 13-15

Section V. The Special Sense of Smell (Olfaction).. 13-21--13-22 13-17

Section VI. The Special Sense of Taste (Gustation). 13-23--13-24 13-17

Exercises 13-18

14 SOME ELEMENTARY HUMAN GENETICS 14-1--14-10 14-2

Exercises 14-10

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1 -1 Human somatotypes 1-4

2-1 A "typical" animal cell 2-3

2-2 Scheme of the body fluids and fluid compartments 2-5

2-3 Tonicity (cell with semipermeable membrane, nonpermeable to electrolyte present) 2-9

2-4 Length-tension curve of an FCT fiber 2-14

3-1 The integument and related structures 3-2

4-1 "Typical" long bone section 4-4

4-2 "Typical" flat bone section 4-7

4-3 A "typical" synovial joint -- diagrammatic 4-11

4-4 Anterior view of the human skeleton 4-13

4-5 Midsagittal section of skull and vertebral column with

CNS and meninges in place 4-14

5-1 Schematic diagram of the "sliding filament" theory 5-4

5-2 Types of lever systems 5-9

5-3 The skeletomuscular unit 5-10

6-1 The human digestive system 6-2

7-1 Schematic frontal section of the human trunk 7-3

7-2 "Filling" of the lungs 7-5

7-3 Supralaryngeal structures 7-11

7-4 Infralaryngeal structures 7-15

7-5 Scheme of the exchange of the gases 7-20

8-1 The human urinary system 8-3

8-2 A "typical" nephron 8-5

9-1 The human male reproductive (genital) system 9-4

9-2 The human female reproductive (genital) system 9-7

10-1 Diagram of the human cardiovascular (circulatory) system 10-4

10-2 Cardiovascular circulatory pattern 10-11

10-3 The human heart function 10-13

11 -1 The endocrine glands of the human body and their locations 11-2

12-1 A "typical" neuron 12-2

12-2 The human central nervous system (CNS) 12-4

12-3 Human brain: side view 12-5

12-4 Human brain: bottom view 12-6

12-5 Left cerebral hemisphere 12-7

12-6 A cross section of the spinal cord 12-8

12-7 A "typical" spinal nerve, with a cross section of the spinal cord 12-10

12-8 A synapse 12-13

12-9 A neuromuscular junction 12-14

12-10 The general reflex arc 12-15

12-11 Levels of the CNS 12-23

13-1 A focal-axis section of the bulbus oculi 13-3

13-2 Cellular detail of the retina 13-4

13-3 Scheme of visual input 13-5

13-4 Bending of the light rays by a biconvex lens 13-7

13-5 Characteristics of sound 13-10

13-6 A frontal section of the human ear 13-11

13-7 Diagram of the scalae 13-13

13-8 The labyrinths of the internal ear 13-14

14-1 Cell division and fertilization 14-4

14-2 A monohybrid crossing 14-6

14-3 A dihybrid crossing 14-7

14-4 A sex-linked monohybrid crossing 14-9

LIST OF TABLES

6-1 Foodstuffs, enzyme classes, and end products of digestion 6-9

13-1 The special senses 13-2

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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