Unlock Your Hip Flexors

Unlock Your Hip Flexors

Unlock Your Hip Flexors is a program that gives the user a practical, easy-to-follow, natural method of releasing tight hip Flexors. Its aim is to help the user get the desired result within 60 days at 10-15 minutes per day. Naturally, the hip flexors are not meant to be tight. When they become tight, the user needs a way to make them loosen up. Unlock Your Hip Flexor has been programmed in such a way that it will help the user in doing just that. The plan was not created to be a quick fix. In fact, it will take the user close to 60 days to solve this problem and it is hard; yet the easiest as well the only that have been known to successfully help in the loosening of tightened hip flexors. The methods employed in this program are natural ones that have been proven by many specials. The system comes with bonus E-books Unlock Your Tight Hamstrings (The Key To A Healthy Back And Perfect Posture) and The 7-Day Anti-Inflammatory Diet (Automatically Heal Your Body With The Right Foods). There various exercises that can be done at home are recorded in a video format and are so easy that you will only get a difficult one after you have agreed to proceed to the next stage. Read more here...

Unlock Your Hip Flexors Summary


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Contents: Ebooks, Training Program
Author: Mike Westerdal
Official Website: www.unlockmyhips.com
Price: $19.00

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My Unlock Your Hip Flexors Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Unlock Your Hip Flexors can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Gracilis Muscle Flap

Gracilis Muscle Strain

Bartholdson and Hulten described the gracilis muscle flap for perineal reconstruction in 1975 29 . This fusiform muscle lies along the medial side of the thigh and knee and serves to adduct the thigh, and to flex and medially rotate the leg. It attaches proximal-ly at the body and inferior ramus of the pubic bone and distally to the superior part of the medial surface of the tibia. The dominant vascular pedicle of this flap is the medial femoral circumflex artery and vein that branches off the profunda femoris artery and vein 18 . The muscle is exposed through a longitudinal thigh incision and the distal end is divided near the knee (Fig. 2). It may be rotated as a muscle or as a myocutaneous unit. Usually the muscle alone is used for rotation as the overlying skin has a rather uncertain blood supply. Moreover, the inclusion of the skin tends to limit the degree of muscle transposition into the perineal wound. Furthermore, the donor site may be difficult to close 16 . This flap can be...

Joint swelling and tenderness

Diagnosis of joint tenderness can be made by eliciting pain by applying pressure at rest or by moving the joint, or questioning the patient about joint pain (eg, during movement of the hip joints). To elicit tenderness, pressure should be exerted by the examiner's thumb and index finger sufficient to cause 'whitening' of the examiner's nail bed.

Postoperative Ligaments

ACL tears are the most common complete ligamentous injury in the knee 27 and given the sequelae of degenerative change and meniscal tears commonly encountered in ACL-deficient knees 28 , ACL reconstructions are performed with increasing frequency particularly in patients with an active lifestyle 29 . Reconstructions may be intra-articular, extra-articular, or combined, with the intra-articular technique being the preferred choice currently. The choice of reconstruction graft material includes autograft or allograft bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB), hamstrings (semitendinosus and gracilis), Achilles tendon, and fascia lata with BPTB and hamstrings being the most frequently used construct grafts 30 . The use of prosthetic grafts such as scaffolds, permanent prostheses, and augmentation devices has largely fallen out of favor because of high failure rates and synovitis as a result of intra-articular particulate debris 31 .

Calcium Phosphate Coatings

The most popular coating technique is plasma spraying 29-32 . With this coating technique, HA, BCP, TCP and even bioglass can be coated onto metal surface to make a metal osteoconductive. Calcium phosphate coated metallic devices including dental roots and hip joints are commercially available for clinical use. However, plasma coating technique is limited to coat the outer surface of metal devices with a simple shape 32 . Thus far, new coating techniques are being developed to make stable calcium phosphate coating onto the surface of biomaterials with complicated structures.

Axial and Appendicular Skeletons

The other endoskeletal subdivision is called the appendicular skeleton, and it is made up of the bones of the pelvic girdle, shoulders, and limbs. The components of the appendicular system exhibit a great degree of variation from vertebrate group to vertebrate group and even among species, as do those of the axial system, and reflect the many different environments and lifestyles to which their respective possessors have adapted. A case in point is the numerous variations in form and length found among limb bones. The various lengths represent adaptations to such external environmental factors as the medium through which the animals move from place to place (air, water, ground surface, and subsurface) and speed. The lower and upper limb bones themselves are connected by joints. The jointing arrangements of limb bones are highly efficient mechanical developments. Two basic types of limb joint exist the pulley joint and the ball-and-socket joint. Pulley joints are exemplified by finger...

Tubes for synovial fluid analysis


There are external landmarks that can direct aspiration and injection of the hip joint, but success in this venture requires some experience. When the goal of aspiration is to secure synovial fluid for diagnostic studies, arthrocentesis should be performed under fluoroscopic or ultrasound control. The spinal and sacroiliac joints often demand fluoroscopic or CT guidance.

Definition And Characterization

Last appearances Paracimexomys, P. priscus, Meniscoes-sus collomensis, M. conquistus, cf. Deltatheridium sp., Alphadon wilsoni, Protalphadon, P. lulli, Turgidodon, T. rhaister, Pediomys cooki, P. hatcheri, P. krejcii, Stagodontidae, and Didelphodon possible other last appearances Cimolomyidae, Cimolomys, C. gracilis, Meniscoessus robustus, Cimolestes cerberoides, C. stir-toni, and Paranyctoides

The roles of surveillance and epidemiology

The outcomes that are assessed in a study that compares these two types of hip joints may be affected more by the different patient characteristics than by the hip joints used. Another example is surgical gloves vinyl is much less allergenic than latex, but latex has much better performance characteristics. Studying latex sensitivity among users of vinyl, compared to users of latex, could be confounded by the users' actual or feared latex sensitivity. Latex has many interesting features that impact epidemiologic study design, as discussed in the following section.

Assessment of acute pain

Regular measurement of pain means that it is more difficult to ignore and the efficacy of interventions can be assessed. There are a variety of methods of assessing pain Table 3.3 shows a simple, practical system that is easily administered and understood by patients. The numeric score is to facilitate recording and allows trends to be identified. Pain must be assessed with appropriate activity for the stage of recovery for example, 5 days after a hip joint replacement a patient would not be expected to have pain while lying in bed, but adequate

Clinical presentation

The acute onset of joint pain is the most characteristic symptom, with increasing severity on flexion, extension, or weight bearing. Articular pain is induced by even minimal degrees of joint motion. Arthralgia produced only by extreme flexion or extreme extension is suggestive of periarticular inflammation, as seen in septic bursitis. Local soft-tissue swelling, tenderness, erythema, and warmth accompany a restricted range of motion in the involved articulation. Fever is an almost constant feature of pyarthrosis (90 of cases), and systemic sepsis with septic shock can occur with particularly virulent pathogens in vulnerable patients. Synovial effusions are present in 90 of cases. Bacterial arthritis usually affects only one joint however, polyarticular infection is seen in 10 of patients and frequently reflects concomitant bacteremia. Knees and hips are the most commonly infected joints, but septic arthritis in parenteral drug abusers often affects the sternoclavicular,...

Risk factors for hip implant

Osteoarthritis is the most important underlying condition that creates the need for an artificial hip implant. Pain is the primary symptom of this noninflammatory arthritis of the hip. The pain increases with exercise and is often diminished by rest. Patients may complain of stiffness after prolonged sitting. Radiographic studies may reveal narrowing of the hip joint space caused by loss of cartilage.

Intramuscular Central Tendon Injury

Having completed a predefined rehabilitation regimen 8 . Fifteen cases involved the rectus femoris, six vastus intermedius, one vastus lateralis, and three had normal MRI exam. Thus, the most significant injuries were rectus femoris central tendon injures greater than 13 cm in length or greater than 15 cross-sectional area resulting in rehabilitation intervals of 32.7 to 35.3 days. These injuries were termed acute bullseye lesions because of MR appearance. Peripheral injures less than 15 of cross-sectional area had the smallest rehabilitation interval of zero days in three cases. One hypothesis for longer rehabilitation times for healing central tendon injuries is that scar tissue from the healing process predisposes to discordant contraction of deep and superficial fibers resulting in chronic irritation and prolonged healing. This central tendon injury pattern of the rectus femoris has also been described with ultrasound with good MR correlation but the experienced authors of this...

Posterior Superior Iliac Spine

Posterior View Gluteal And Thigh

Iliopsoas Iliacus Psoas major Muscles of the Thigh, Anterior View. (A) Superficial muscles (B) rectus femoris and other muscles removed to expose the other three heads of the quadriceps femoris. Muscles of the Thigh, Anterior View. (A) Superficial muscles (B) rectus femoris and other muscles removed to expose the other three heads of the quadriceps femoris. Iliopsoas Iliacus Psoas major Pectineus Adductor-brevis Adductor longus Gracilis gracilis on tibia Iliopsoas Iliacus Psoas major Pectineus Adductor-brevis Adductor longus Gracilis Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Gracilis 2. Sartorius muscle 2. Sartorius muscle 3. Sartorius muscle 4. Iliopsoas muscle (deep to blood vessels) 6. Pectineus muscle (deep to blood vessels) 7. Adductor longus muscle 9. Gracilis muscle 1. Sartorius muscle (cut) 3. Pectineus muscle (deep to blood vessels) 4. Adductor longus muscle 6. Gracilis muscle (cut) 11. Rectus femoris muscle 1. Sartorius muscle (cut) 4. Rectus femoris muscle 7. Pectineus muscle (under...

Pelvic Apophyseal Avulsions Injury

Calcification Aiis

Likely sites of pelvic avulsions in adolescents with incomplete skeletal maturation include ischial tuberosity (hamstring insertion), anterior superior iliac spine (sartorius), anterior inferior iliac spine (rectus femoris), pubic symphysis (adductors), and greater and lesser trochanter (gluteus muscles and iliopsoas) and rarely iliac crest apophysis (abdominal wall insertion) 85 . Chronic avul-sive injuries can also be confused for malignant lesions or chronic infections and often result from chronic overuse injuries in patients participating in organized sports 86 . A review of over 200 cases of apophyseal avulsions showed the most common areas of involvement were the ischial tuberosity, anterior inferior iliac spine (ASIS), and anterior superior iliac spine (AIIS) with the highest association among those participating in soccer, gymnastics, and track and field athletics 87 (Fig. 20).

Molecular Regulation Of Limb Development

Phocomelia Babies

Congenital hip dislocation consists of underdevelopment of the acetabulum and head of the femur. It is rather common and occurs mostly in females. Although dislocation usually occurs after birth, the abnormality of the bones develops prenatally. Since many babies with congenital hip dislocation are breech deliveries, it has been thought that breech posture may interfere with development of the hip joint. It is frequently associated with laxity of the joint capsule.

Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap

Gracilis Myocutaneous Flaps

This technique was described by Taylor et al. in 1983 35 . It is an excellent method for closing a large perineal defect. Based on the inferior epigastric artery and vein, it may be passed into the pelvis to close the pelvic floor and fill the dead space. It is best employed pro-phylactically in high risk patients at the time of proc-tectomy when potential perineal wound problems are anticipated 17 , or at the time of abdominoperineal excision for a large neoplasm 34 when extensive perineal excision is needed in Crohn's disease 36 , or, finally, when the combined approach is used to excise a large perineal sinus in Crohn's disease or after radiotherapy 16 . As a delayed or secondary procedure, the advantages of this flap must be weighed against the potential difficulties and morbidity of having to reenter the lower abdomen and mobilise the bowel to provide space to pass this flap into the pelvis, which is often severely fibrotic. Moreover, in very large pelvic wounds, the bulk of a...

Labeling Exercise 201

Muscle Labeling Exercises

Adductors of thigh Biceps brachii Brachioradialis Deltoid Extensor carpi External oblique Flexor carpi Gastrocnemius Intercostals Internal oblique Masseter Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Pectoralis major Peroneus longus Quadriceps femoris Rectus abdominis Sartorius Serratus anterior Soleus

Anterior Inferior Acetabular Hip Paralabral Cyst

Iliopsoas Bursa

Rectus femoris avulsion in an athlete. (A) Coronal inversion recovery, and (B) axial T2, fat-suppressed images demonstrate avulsion of the origin of the biceps femoris from the left anterior inferior iliac spine. Note prominence of avulsed tendon (arrows) with surrounding soft-tissue edema and hemorrhage. Fluid distending the iliopsoas bursa, resulting in symptoms, is a common clinical problem. There may be communication between hip joint and bursa, with bursal distension resulting from intracapsular hip pathologies. This potential communication is readily depicted on hip arthrography 28 . Fluid in the iliopsoas bursa may present at the level of the acetabular rim (Fig. 8) 29 . This may mimic a paralabral cyst secondary to a acetabular labral tear. In other cases, the Fig. 8. Iliopsoas bursitis. Axial proton-density-weighted image of the right hip demonstrates a mixed signal intensity, rounded, well-defined mass anterior to the right femoral head (arrow). This is at the...

Snapping Hip Syndrome

Sonography Gluteal Bursa

The external type of snapping hip is the most common, and is caused by catching of either the posterior iliotibial band (ITB) or the anterior aspect of the gluteus maximus muscle as it moves over the greater trochanter during flexion and extension of the hip joint 16 . An external snapping hip is typically a clinical diagnosis, so imaging is seldom needed. An internal snapping hip is most commonly related to the iliopsoas tendon. Sonography has emerged as the preferred technique for examining the iliopsoas tendon, because it allows both static and dynamic evaluation of the soft tissues around the hip joint 16,20,21 . Sonography also provides an accurate method for injection into the iliopsoas bursa however, because sonography may not allow accurate evaluation of intra-articular pathologic conditions, The anterior aspect of the symptomatic hip is examined first using transverse and sagittal planes with the patient in the supine position. Static images are obtained along the course of...

The Dna Double Helices Of Chromosomes Can Be Partly Unwound In Situ By Special Treatment

The plant Haplopappus gracilis has a 2n of 4. A diploid cell culture was established and, at premitotic S phase, a radioactive nucleotide was added and was incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. The cells were then removed from the radioactivity, washed, and allowed to proceed through mitosis. Radioactive chromosomes or chromatids can be detected by placing photographic emulsion on the cells radioactive chromosomes or chromatids appeared covered with spots of silver from the emulsion. (The chromosomes take their own photograph.) Draw the chromo 40. The plant Haplopappus gracilis is diploid and 2n 4. There are one long pair and one short pair of chromosomes. The accompanying diagrams (see page 41) represent anaphases (pulling apart stages) of individual cells in meiosis or mitosis in a plant that is genetically a dihybrid (A a B b) for genes on different chromosomes. The lines represent chromosomes or chromatids, and the points of the V's repre- sent centromeres. In each case,...

Distal Adductor injury

Distal insertional injury of the adductor may also occur as it inserts on the femur, known as adductor insertion avulsion syndrome and represents a traction injury along the muscle insertion on the femur (similar to tibial shinsplints) as a result of overuse often affecting athletes and military recruits 65-68 . MRI findings vary from periosteal edema to intramedullary signal changes. Radiographs may show periosteal reaction 67 . Based on anatomy, proximal injuries are associated with the adductor brevis, mid-femoral abnormalities are related to adductor longus, and distal posteromedial findings associated with the adductor magnus. Ultrasound may demonstrate periosteal edema, and bone scan may show increased uptake as well 68 . Differential also includes tumor, pseudotumor, and osteomyelitis but clinically thigh splints tend to resolve quickly in response to rest over 1 to 2 months 67,69,70 (Fig. 17).

Indications For Open Prostatectomy

There are a number of factors that should prompt the serious consideration of suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy. These include the following (1) adenomas > 75 g (2) transition zone hyperplasia associated with a large, prominent subtrigonal component (3) presence of a physiologically relevant diverticulum (4) multiple large bladder calculi (5) confounding orthopedic problems such as severe spinal stenosis and fusion ankylosis of the hip joints (6) large scrotal hernia or massive hydrocele (7) rigid or semirigid penile prosthesis (8) multiple urethral strictures (9) trigonal distortion resulting from trauma or previous surgery that places the ureteral orifices in close proximity to the bladder neck (10) expectations prejudices of the patient and (11) skill experience of the surgeon (1).

Treatment of pathologic femoral neck fractures

Pathologic Fracture Femur

Two years after the accident the fracture has remodeled, the femoral head is spherical and shows a normal trabecular structure. The joint is intact and the patient walks without a cane. When comparing to the opposite side the function of both hip joints is nearly identical. For the treatment of extensive bone cysts the choice of the DCD double plate has proved to be ideal c. Two years after the accident the fracture has remodeled, the femoral head is spherical and shows a normal trabecular structure. The joint is intact and the patient walks without a cane. When comparing to the opposite side the function of both hip joints is nearly identical. For the treatment of extensive bone cysts the choice of the DCD double plate has proved to be ideal

Treatment of postoperative wound infections

Often the clinical symptoms are very discrete. In the presence of pain imaging and laboratory examinations can confirm the suspicion of a purulent process. The exposure of the hip constitutes a major stress for the elderly patient who is often in poor health. Surgery requires a meticulous preparation that should however not delay the intervention. The first step is a revision of the approach used for screw fixation. The screws are then removed, the incision extended cranially and the hip joint opened from anterior.

Proximal Adductor Injury

Obturator Externus Tear Mri

In a nonconsecutive series of adductor muscle injuries (13) all involved the adductor longus 12 . The adductor longus seems to be the most commonly injured muscle but other adductors such as adductor brevis, pectineus, and gracilis may be injured 56-58 . Fig. 15. Partial insertional or entheseal tear of the adductor longus on the left (white arrow) on fluid-sensitive axial images. Note the loss of cross-sectional volume of the tendon insertion and subjacent bone marrow edema. For anatomic purposes, p pectineus and oe obturator externus. Black arrow shows normal insertion on the right. Fig. 16. Coronal IR image showing complete acute avulsion of the left adductor longus insertion on the pubic symphysis in a professional football defensive lineman (A). Football linebacker with chronic injury of the right adductor tendon that has healed but develops intermittent pain. Note irregularity and enlargement of the tendon without surrounding edema (arrow) as compared with the opposite...

The Right Lower Quadrant

Ileocolic Artery And Duodenum

By placing the patient in the Trendelenburg position with the right side up, the terminal ileum, its retroperitoneal attachments, the cecum, and the ligament of Treitz can be visualized (Figure 7.12, see color plate). The vascular structures of the ileum and right colon may also be identified (Figure 7.13, see color plate), and their relationship to the duodenum may be appreciated. With dissection of the ileum and right colon away from their retroperitoneal attachments, then the psoas major muscle, the psoas minor tendon, and the right gonadal vessels and ureter are easily seen. The hepatic flexure is well visualized as the ascending colon is mobilized from the retroperitoneum (Figure 7.14). In thinner patients, the vascular structures in the transverse mesocolon (i.e., right and left branches of middle colic vessels) can be clearly demonstrated even before mesenteric dissection (Figure 7.15, see color plate). Figure 7.14. As the right colon is mobilized, the retroperitoneal...

Rupture Of The Patellar Tendon

Patella Tendon Rupture Tka

Leaving the distal insertion site intact. The freed proximal end of the tendon was then routed through holes drilled in the tibial tubercle and the patella before being secured back onto itself near its insertion site. If there is insufficient length, the gracilis tendon can also be harvested, detached, and sutured to the semitendinosis tendon. Ecker and associates15 described a modification of this technique employing skeletal traction with a Steinmann pin through the superior pole of the patella to regain length of the shortened tendon. However, this technique is not recommended when a total knee replacement is present. by harvesting the gracilis tendon and passing it through the patella drill hole as well. Postoperatively, weight-bearing was begun within 48 hours in a knee immobilizer or cast. Knee motion was then initiated at 6 weeks and progressed slowly over the next 10 weeks in a hinged knee brace. They reported that quadriceps strength and knee motion was restored in all...

Ultrasound Of Knee Friedman 2001

Ultrasonography of the adult hip joint. Scand J Rheumatol 1989 18 113-7. 4 Zieger MM, Dorr U, Schulz RD. Ultrasonography of hip joint effusions. Skeletal Radiol 1987 16 607-11. 7 Weybright PN, Jacobson JA, Murry KH, etal. Limited effectiveness of sonography in revealing hip joint effusion preliminary results in 21 adult patients with native and postoperative hips. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003 181 215-8. 9 Soini I, Kotaniemi A, Kautiainen H, et al. US assessment of hip joint synovitis in rheumatic diseases. A comparison with MR imaging. Acta Radiol 2003 44 72-8. Janzen DL, Partridge E, Logan PM, etal. The snapping hip clinical and imaging findings in transient subluxation of the iliopsoas tendon. Can Assoc Radiol J 1996 47 202-8. Cardinal E, Buckwalter KA, Capello WN, et al. US of the snapping iliopsoas tendon. Radiology 1996 198 521-2. Vaccaro JP, Sauser DD, Beals RK. Iliopsoas bursa imaging efficacy in depicting abnormal iliopsoas tendon motion in...

Plant Productivity Survival and Growth Form

Primary Production Limiting Factor

Plants often are able to compensate for herbivory in the spring when conditions favor plant productivity but become less able to compensate later in the season (Akiyama et al. 1984, Hik and Jefferies 1990, Thompson and Gardner 1996). Grasshopper, Aulocara elliotti, did not significantly reduce standing crop of blue grama grass, Bouteloua gracilis, when feeding occurred early in the growing season but significantly reduced standing crop when feeding occurred later in southwestern New Mexico, United States (Thompson and Gardner 1996).

Hip Bursal Fluid Collections

Periarticular and extra-articular fluid collections around the hip can be a source of hip pain. The greater trochanteric bursa and the iliopsoas bursa are the major bursa of the hip, which can be evaluated with ultrasound. Both iliopsoas and trochanteric bursitis is demonstrated on ultrasound as an enlarged, anechoic or hypoechoic bursa when compared with the contralateral, asymptomatic hip (Figs. 4, 5) 6 . Fluid distension of the bursa may be asymptomatic that is, non-tender when pressure is applied over the bursa with the transducer during sonographic imaging. In symptomatic cases, ultrasound can be used to guide bursal aspiration and injection of steroids.

Open reduction of a displaced neck fracture

Femur Neck Fracture Open Reduction

Thigh along the anterosuperior iliac spine the anterior surface of the joint capsule is reached lateral to the rectus femoris. The joint is open through a T-shaped incision and the capsular flaps are held by stay sutures. Retractors keep the wound open exposing the joint. The fracture can now be reduced with a periosteal elevator and gentle manipulations.

Viable particle counting during production

Rodac Plates

Many users will want to check the viable particle count as well as overall particle count, using one of several air sampling methods, such as the slit-to-agar sampler. Ideally, such devices should sample the air without either physical or biological losses and, where unidirectional downflow is operating in the isolator, an isokinetic sampler is preferred. This simply takes the sample at the same velocity as the downflow air. It neither draws excessive air into the sampler nor loses spilled air over the lip of the sampler. The Sartorius MD 8 (Figure 8.1) microbiological air sampler has been described by Parks et al. (1996). This device, using water-soluble gelatin filters with very high particle retention, is ideal for isolator use, and, indeed, some commercial isolators now carry the unit as a standard option. Since the filter can retain very small particles, it has also been used to establish low levels of cytotoxic products in some environments. Figure 8.2 shows the sampler head in...

Types Of Muscle Injury

Some have long muscle bellies (sartorius) whereas others have long tendons (plantaris). Some have muscle fibers aligned with tendons in a colinear fashion (unipennate) whereas others have muscle fibers inserting at an angle on an intramuscular tendon (bipennate), which increases muscle fiber density and ultimately contractile forces (ie, hamstrings, rectus femoris).


Dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation is seldom indicated. A broad DCP should be employed and with the advent of excellent intramedullary techniques, the only real indication in the adult for DCP fixation is an associated ipsilateral pelvic or acetabular fracture. Early surgical stabilization of a pelvic fracture may be prevented if there is a recent wound around the hip joint.


Synovitis of the hip joint may result from RA, seronegative spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis, viral infections, and hemophilia. d. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a synovial proliferation in the hip joint characterized histologically by hemosiderin-stained synovium and giant cells.


Antiinflammatory medications are useful for arthritic problems involving the hip joint. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen 600 mg to 800 mg three times daily can be helpful. These medications are contraindicated in patients taking anticoagulants or who have peptic ulcer or renal disease. Cox-2 specific antiinflammatory agents may offer relief to patients who are currently unable to take traditional NSAIDs.


Gentle isometric exercises for the quadriceps and hamstrings and antigravity exercises as tolerated for hip flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, and rotators are recommended. See Chapter.56 for specific exercise prescriptions. Weight reduction is an important aspect of the treatment of hip disorders. The prognosis in many hip disorders is guarded if aggravating factors such as obesity are not addressed. Ideal patient weights are listed in Appendix C.

Proximal Injury

Proximal nonapophyseal avulsions of the rectus femoris tendon have been described but considered rare, although with increasing awareness of intra-artic-ular hip pathology and imaging of unilateral hips, recognition may increase. A recent case report describes injury in two professional football kickers in the NFL 35 . Each had MR findings of retraction of the direct head (1 and 3.5 cm). Both were treated conservatively with the patient with the 1-cm retraction injury ultimately returning to competition. Another case report describes a surgically corrected chronic rupture of proximal myotendinous junction of the rec-tus femoris in a soccer player with good clinical outcome 36 (Fig. 11).


Generalized osteoarthritis was named by Moore in 1952. Generalized OA is defined by involvement of three or more joints or joint groups e.g., the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints are counted as one group . By definition, conditions that are known to produce secondary generalized OA, such as ochronosis, are excluded. The DIP, proximal interphalangeal (PIP), first carpometacarpal (CMC), spine, knee, and hip joints are commonly involved. Other features of generalized OA include a predilection for postmenopausal women and episodic joint inflammation. A familial pattern, associated with Heberden's nodes, has been reported in a subset of generalized OA patients.


The application of high-frequency sound waves to the musculoskeletal system causes a deep heating response. This response is deeper than that induced by other physical agents, and it has been demonstrated that the intraarticular temperature of the hip joint rises by 1.43 C after a properly applied therapeutic dose. Typical patient exposure is 1 to 2 W cm 2 for 5 to 10 minutes. Ultrasound can also be combined with electrical stimulation.

Case Study

D.S., a 28-year-old woman, was treated for injuries sustained in a train derailment accident. During the course of her treatment, she was seen by several specialists. For pain in her knee and hip joints, she was referred to an orthopedist. For migraine headaches and blurry vision, she consulted a neurologist. For pain on urination and occasional bloody urine, she saw a urologist. Later, for a persistent dry cough and problems resulting from a fractured nose, she was referred to an otorhinolaryngologist. During her initial course of treatment, she had a CT scan of her abdomen and brain and an MRI of her hip and knee. Both imaging studies required her to lie motionless on her back for 45 minutes.


Sometimes patients do not recall muscle injury and may present several months later with a small painless mass in the anterior thigh. While consideration for sarcoma may exist, MR may detect pseudotumors related to chronic rectus femoris tear. In one case series with normal x-rays without soft tissue calcification or periostitis, MR showed an irregular mass (usually less than 5 cm) with edema and some enhancement compatible with pseudotumors 53 . Short-term follow-up imaging may be needed to help distinguish pseudotumor from soft tissue malignancy 52 .

Apophyseal Injuries

Iliopsoas Bursitis

Tendinopathy of the iliopsoas tendon. Transverse sonographic image of the iliopsoas tendon at the level of the acetabulum shows a thickened heterogeneous tendon (large arroW). The small arrow depicts the iliopsoas muscle at the level of the musculotendinous junction. Fig. 3. Tendinopathy of the iliopsoas tendon. Transverse sonographic image of the iliopsoas tendon at the level of the acetabulum shows a thickened heterogeneous tendon (large arroW). The small arrow depicts the iliopsoas muscle at the level of the musculotendinous junction. Fig. 5. Iliopsoas bursitis. (A) Transverse sonographic image shows a fluid collection (measurement marks) adjacent and medial to the iliopsoas tendon (large arroW) and lateral to the femoral vessels (notched arrow). (B) Coronal and (C) axial T2-weighted, fat-suppressed MR images show the right iliopsoas bursal collection (arrows).


Congenital Pathology Sacroiliac Joint

The diagnosis of SI joint pain is a diagnosis of exclusion. Other etiologies of pain such as spinal stenosis, herniated disc, and facet degenerative disease must first be excluded. Various physical maneuvers (e.g., Patrick's test, Gillet test, Gaenslen's maneuver, pain with pressure application to the SI ligaments at the sacral sulcus with the patient prone) have been described to diagnose SI joint pain3,16,31-32 but may be unreliable due to the lack of intraobserver and interobserver repro-ducibility.14,33,34 Additionally, many of these maneuvers also stress the lumbar spine or hip joints,35 which may confound interpretation.

Silva Foguel Protein

Harper AA, MacDonald AG, Wardle CS, Pennec J-P (1987) The pressure tolerance of deep-sea fish axons results of Challenger cruise 6B 85. Comp Biochem Physiol 88A 647-653 Hodge WA, Fijan RS, Carlson KL, Burgess RG, Harris WH, Mann RW (1986) Contact pressures in the human hip joint measured in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83 2879-2883 Hove JR, Koster RW, Forouhar AS, Acevedo-Bolton G, Fraser SE, Gharib M (2003) Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis. Nature 421 172-177 Jannasch HW, Taylor CD (1984) Deep-sea microbiology.

Hip Tendons Muscles

Longitudinal Echo Imaging Hip

Hip joint effusion. (A) Longitudinal sonographic image of the left hip joint shows an effusion measuring 1.0 cm. (B) Longitudinal image of the right hip joint for comparison without effusion. (C) Aspiration of the left hip was performed under real-time sonographic imaging long arrow marks the needle, tip of the needle (thin arrow is within the fluid. Fig. 1. Hip joint effusion. (A) Longitudinal sonographic image of the left hip joint shows an effusion measuring 1.0 cm. (B) Longitudinal image of the right hip joint for comparison without effusion. (C) Aspiration of the left hip was performed under real-time sonographic imaging long arrow marks the needle, tip of the needle (thin arrow is within the fluid.

Dysplastic Bump

Femoral Head Neck Bump

As already discussed, there is a very strong association between FAI and hyaline cartilage abnormalities. One study showed 95 of 42 hips with cam-type FAI had significant cartilage damage 6 . It is felt that cartilage damage is the primary etiology of early development of OA in these patients. It can be difficult to detect cartilage damage by means of imaging. The hip joint is small, and even with arthrography it is difficult to force contrast around the femoral head to demonstrate filling defects in the cartilage. Nonetheless, these defects must be carefully sought. They are usually found in the anterosuperior portion of the acetabulum, adjacent to an associated labral injury. The cartilage injury may be focal or may be extensive, with delamination.


Semitendinosus Strain

Axial fluid sensitive image mid thigh shows increased fluid signal in rectus femoris consistent with contusion. Note enlargement and diffuse edema in this soccer player that sustained a direct blow to the thigh. The semitendinosus is another biarticular muscle with a common origin of the long head of the biceps femoris via the conjoined tendon (Fig. 5). Distally it has a long tendon, which inserts on the proximal medial tibia posterior to the sartorius. Its function is similar to that of the long head of biceps femoris although because of its medial sided insertion distally it functions as an internal rotator of the hip and knee. It has been classified as a digastric muscle owing to a central raphe where the proximal fibers insert 27 . Fig. 5. (A) Axial T1-weighted images of proximal thighs. Note how T1-weighted images allow good depiction of muscle fat planes. This image is proximal to the ischial tuberosity and shows the sacrotuberous ligament (white arrow) insertion on the...

Skunk Facts

Genus and species Three genera and thirteen species, including Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Spilogale angustifrons (southern spotted skunk), S. gracilis (western spotted skunk), S. putorius (eastern spotted skunk), S. pygmaea (pygmy spotted skunk) Geographical location The United States, Mexico, southern Canada, and Central America Habitat Rocky crevices or hollow trees may live in the suburbs, where they make dens in burrows or under buildings or sheds Gestational period Two to seven months Life span Up to seven years in the wild, ten years in captivity

Anatomy Thigh Axial

Hamstrings Mri Anatomy Axial

The adductors are composed primarily of superficial (pectineus, gracilis, and adductor longus), middle (adductor brevis), and deep (adductor magnus) muscle structures 26 (Fig. 14A,C). The adductor magnus has anterior and Fig. 14. Axial T1-weighted images of proximal thighs in professional football player with acute groin pain on the left. The annotated right side (A) shows normal anatomy of the adductor muscle group al, adductor longus ab, adductor brevis am, adductor magnus. The black arrows show the normal myotendinous junction of the adductor longus. The white arrows depict adductor brevis myotendinous junction and the white arrowhead shows myotendinous junction of the gracilis. (B) Edema of myotendinous strain of adductor longus on fluid-sensitive axial images. (C) Additional anatomy more distally of mid thigh. s, sartorius g, gracilis. Fig. 14. Axial T1-weighted images of proximal thighs in professional football player with acute groin pain on the left. The annotated right side...

Distal Injury

Distal Quadriceps Contusion

Distally the quadriceps tendons merge together before inserting on the patella. MR appearance of the quadriceps tendon is that of a layered structure usually trilaminar (56 ), although occasionally one (6 ), two (30 ), or four (8 ) layers are seen. The superficial layer represents the rectus femoris, the deep layer the vastus intermedius, and the middle layer consists of variable contributions of the vastus lateralis and medialis 37 (Fig. 12). Fig. 10. (A) Focal edema around the central tendon of the rectus femoris on axial fluid sensitive image. The central location of injury suggests longer rehabilitation time. (B) Coronal IR images in a different patient with a long segment (> 13 cm) injury of the central tendon. (C) Focal peripheral injury of the rectus femoris involving a large cross-sectional area of the muscle. (D) Chronic central tendon lesion of rectus femoris that has healed. Note fibrous proliferative scar tissue and lack of adjacent edema (arrow). Fig. 11. Edema...


Vastus Lateralis Tendinitis Mri

Sagittal image of a normal quadriceps tendon with superficial (black arrow rectus femoris), middle (white arrow, vastus lateralis and medialis) and deep fibers (open arrow, vastus intermedius) (A). Different patient with partial tear of quadriceps tendon (black arrow) and residual intact fibers of vastus intermedius (B). Fig. 12. Sagittal image of a normal quadriceps tendon with superficial (black arrow rectus femoris), middle (white arrow, vastus lateralis and medialis) and deep fibers (open arrow, vastus intermedius) (A). Different patient with partial tear of quadriceps tendon (black arrow) and residual intact fibers of vastus intermedius (B). findings of muscle swelling and interstitial edema and hemorrhage 51,52 (Fig. 13). Contusions of the rectus femoris have been graded clinically into mild, moderate, and severe based on knee flexion, swelling, and pain 51 . The degree of injury is associated with length of disability and likelihood of myositis ossificans. Mild,...

Myositis Ossficans

Myositis Ossificans Iliopsoas

Radiograph of the pelvis with cylindrical peripheral calcifications associated with calcific myonecrosis or old hematoma of the distal iliopsoas muscle on the right. Fig. 32. Radiograph of the pelvis with cylindrical peripheral calcifications associated with calcific myonecrosis or old hematoma of the distal iliopsoas muscle on the right.


Achilles Musculotendinous Junction

Partial tear of the rectus femoris. (A, B) Two longitudinal images of the rectus femoris show hypoechoic areas within the musculotendinous junction (A, notched arrows) as well as within the muscle fibers. Fig. 14. Partial tear of the rectus femoris. (A, B) Two longitudinal images of the rectus femoris show hypoechoic areas within the musculotendinous junction (A, notched arrows) as well as within the muscle fibers.


Myelin The Brain

Cerebellar vermis, inferior cerebellar peduncles, vestibular nuclei, superior cerebellar peduncles and their decussation, dentate nucleus, medial longitudinal fasciculus, medial geniculate bodies, subthalamic nuclei, inferior olivary nuclei and ventrolateral nuclei of thalamus. Myelin can also be seen in the fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus and in their nuclei (Counsell et al. 2002 Sie et al. 1997).

Laboratory studies

Aspiration of synovial fluid is mandatory for any joint inflammation in which infection is a possibility. Initial aspiration is by closed-needle technique, with a needle large enough (16- to 18-gauge) to permit recovery of thick, purulent material (see Chapter for details of joint aspiration). Hip joint sepsis represents an exception to this approach. In this situation, a radiographically guided aspiration may be more appropriate, and assessment should include an orthopedic surgical evaluation because arthroscopic or open surgical drainage may be necessary.

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