Originally introduced in the fifteenth century for the control of plague, quarantine of shipping was used by the English colonists in North America in 1647 to fry to prevent the entry of yellow fever and smallpox. Quarantine proved very effective in keeping Australia free of endemic smallpox, and in delaying the entry of pandemic influenza into that country in 1919. However, with the onset of air travel and the consequent arrival of passengers before the end of the incubation period, quarantine became much less effective. It was re placed, for smallpox, by the widespread requirement that international travelers had to have a valid certificate of smallpox vaccination, but this is no longer necessary. Currently, a similar provision operates for travelers who come from or pass through countries where yellow fever is endemic.

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