Principles of Animal Virology

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

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Chapter 1 Structure and Composition of Viruses

Viral Morphology 4 Chemical Composition of Virions 10 Preservation of Viral Infectivity 14 Further Reading 15

Chapter 2 Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses

Criteria for Viral Classification 16 Nomenclature 17 Families of DNA Viruses 17 Families of RNA Viruses 22 Other Viruses 27

Groupings Based on Epidemiologic/Pathogenic Criteria Further Reading 29

Chapter 3 Viral Replication

The Viral Replication Cycle 31 Attachment 33 Uptake (Penetration) 35 Uncoating 36 Strategies of Replication 36 Transcription 41

Translation 45

Replication of Viral Nucleic Acid 48 Assembly and Release 49 Further Reading 52

Chapter 4 Viral Genetics and Evolution

Mutation 54

Genetic Recombination between Viruses 59 interactions between Viral Gene Products 61 Mapping Viral Genomes 62 Recombinant DNA Technology 64 Evolution of Viruses 66 Further Reading 72

Chapter 5 Virus-Induced Changes in Cells

Types of Virus-Cell interactions 74 Cytopathic Effects of Virus Infections 76 Mechanisms of Cell Damage 80 Noncytocidal Infections 81 Interferons 82 Further Reading 86

Chapter 6 Mechanisms of Infection and Spread of Viruses through the Body

Routes of Entry 87

Mechanisms of Spread in the Body 92

Virus Shedding 100

Further Reading 102

Chapter 7 Determinants of Viral Virulence and Host Resistance

Viral Virulence and Host Resistance 104 Genetic Determinants of Viral Virulence 105 Genetic Determinants of Host Resistance 111 Physiologic Factors Affecting Resistance 114 Further Reading 118

Chapter 8 Immune Response to Viral Infections

Components of the immune System 120 Immune Responses to Viral Infection 129 Recovery from Viral Infection 131

Immunity to Reinfection 133 Passive Immunity 134 Further Reading 135

Chapter 9 Mechanisms of Disease Production

Viral Damage to Tissues arid Organs 136 Immunopathology 140 Immunosuppression 144

Viral Infections in Immunocompromised Patients 145 Further Reading 146

Chapter 10 Persistent Infections

Categories ol Persistent Infections 148

Acute Infections with Rare Late Complications 149

Latent Infections 150

Chronic Infections 156

Slow Infections 158

Pathogenesis of Persistent Infections 164

Further Reading 169

Chapter 11 Mechanisms of Viral Oncogenesis

Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes 171

Cell Transformation 172

Tumor Induction by Retroviruses 174

Human T-Cell Leukemia Viruses 181

Tumor Induction by DNA Viruses 182

Papillomaviruses 184

Hepadnaviruses 184

Herpesviruses 186

Multistep Oncogenesis 188

Further Reading 189

Chapter 12 Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases

Rational Use of the Laboratory 191

Collection, Packaging, and Transport of Specimens 193

Direct Identification of Virus, Viral Antigen, or Viral Genome

Virus Isolation 205

Measurement of Serum Antibodies 210

Laboratory Safety 216

Further Reading 217

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Immunization against Viral Diseases

Live-Virus Vaccines 219

Inactivated Virus and Virus Subunit Vaccines 223

Synthetic Vaccines 225

DNA Vaccines 226

Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies 226

Methods for Enhancing lmmunogenicity 226

Comparison of Different Classes of Vaccines 227

Further Reading 231

Epidemiology of Viral infections

Computations and Data Used by Epidemiologists 233

Types of Epidemiologic Investigations 238

Virus Transmission 242

Mechanisms of Survival of Viruses in Nature 244

Further Reading 255

Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Viral Diseases

Quarantine 256 Hygiene and Sanitation 257 Vector Control 258 Change of Lifestyle 259 Immunization 259 Eradication 263 Further Reading 265

Chemotherapy of Viral Diseases

Strategy for Development of Antiviral Agents 267 Clinical Application 269 Interferons 271

Inhibitors of Viral DNA Polymerase 272 Inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase 276 Ion Channel Blockers 277 Blocking Attachment or lincoating of Virion 278 Inhibitors of Viral Proteases 279 Virus-Specific Oligonucleotides 279 Inhibitors of Regulatory Proteins 280 Further Reading 280

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