Mechanisms of Infection and Spread of Viruses through the Body

Routes of Entry 87

Mechanisms of Spread in the Body 92

Virus Shedding 100

Further Reading 102

To cause infection, viruses, like other infectious agents, must gain entry to the body, multiply, and spread, either locally or systemically, and in generalized infections localize in the appropriate target organ. To be maintained in nature, infectious virions must be shed into the environment, or taken up by an arthropod vector or a needle, or passed congenially,

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