Oropouche virus, a member of the genus Bunyavirus, has caused repeated epidemics with thousands of cases in northern Brazil, usually in the rainy season, and may occur more widely in northern South America. The human disease is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, and prostration, but no mortality. The major urban vector is the midge Culicoides paracusis, and the virus may be maintained in a midge-human cycle during epidemics. The sylvatic cycle involves sloths, monkeys, and probably jungle mosquitoes.
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