Further Reading

Blattner, W. A , ed. (1990) "Human Retrovirology HTLV " Raven, New York. Boiognesi', D. P. (1993). Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines. Adv Viri/f Res. 42, 103 Cann, A J., and Chen, I S. Y. (1990) Human T cell leukemia virus types I and II In "Fields Virology" (B. N. Fields, D. M Knipe, R M Chanock, M S Hirsch, j. L Melnick, T P Monath, and B. Roizman, eds.), 2nd Ed., p. 1501. Raven, New York Coffin, ) M (1990) Retroviridae and their replicalion In "Fields Virology" (B N Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M Chanock, M S Hirsch, J L. Melnick, T P Monath, and B. Roizman, eds ), 2nd Ed., p. 1437, Raven, New York. Cullen, B. R. (1991). Human immunodeficiency virus as a prototypic complex retrovirus / Virol. 65, 1053.

Cullen, B. R. (1991) Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus replication Annu Rnv Microbiol 45,219

Fauci, A. S (1988) The human immunodeficiency virus- Infectivity and pathogenesis Scicncr 239, 617.

Fauci, A. S., ed. (1993). The Immunology of HIV Infection. Seimn Immune!. 5,(3), 147. Gallo, R. C., and Jay, G., eds (1991) "The Human Retroviruses " Academic Press, New York Greene, W C (1990) Regulation of HIV-1 gene expression Annu. Rev Immunol 8, 453 Greene, W C (1991). The molecular biology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

N Engl ) Med. 324, 308. Hasel tine, W. A (1988). Replication and pathogenesis of the AIDS virus / AIDS 1,217 Haseltme, W. A., and Wong-Staal, F., eds. (1991) "Genetic Structure and Regulation of HIV" Raven, New York

Hirsch, M. S , and Curran, J. (199(1). Human immunodeficiency viruses: Biology and medical aspects. In "Fields Virology" (B N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R M. Chanock, M S Hirsch, ] L. Melnick, T P. Monath, and B Roizman, eds ), 2nd Ed , p. 1545. Raven, New York Jasny, B , ed. (1993) AIDS' the unanswered questions, Science 260, 1253 Koff, W. C , Wong-Staal, F., and Kennedy, R. C , eds. (1991 on) "AIDS Research Reviews," Vols

1 on (annually) Dekker, New York Levy, J A (1988). Retroviridae Human immunodeficiency viruses in "Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases. Principles and Piactice. Volume II, Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Diseases" E II. Lennette, P. Halonen, and F. A. Murphy, eds.), p 677. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Levy, J A. (1993) Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection Mirmlw/ R«> 57, 183

Levy, J. A , ed. (1993). "The Retroviridae." Plenum, New York

McFartin, D. E., and Blattner, W. A (1991) Non-AIDS retroviral infections in humans Atimi Rev Med 42, 97.

Myers, G , Rabson, A. B , Josephs, S F , Smith, T F , Ber/ofsky, j , and Wong-Staal, F. (1992)

"Human Retroviruses and AIDS 1942 " Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Narayan, O , ed (1992). The Lentivirirses. Scimit Vnol 3,(3), 135 Piel, I , ed (1988). What Science Knows about AIDS Sa Am 259(4) Richman, D. D (1991) Antiviral therapy of HIV infection Ainiit Rev. Med 42,69 Rosenberg, Z. F., and Fauci, A S (1989) lmmunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Adv Immunol 47, 377

Schochetman, G., and George, J. R (1991) "AIDS Testing: Methodology and Management Issues " Springer-Verlag, New York Schochetman, G , Epstein, J S , and Zuck, T F. (1989) Serodiagnosis of infection with the AIDS

virus and other human retroviruses Annu Rev. Microbwl 43, 629 Schupbach, ]. (1990). "Human Rolrovirology " Spnnger-Verlag, Berlin

Swanslrom, R , and Vogt, P. K , eds (1990) Retroviruses Strategies of Replication Curr. Top

Murobtol. Immunol 157, 1 Varmus, H. (1988) Retroviruses Science 240, 1427

Weiss, R A , Teich, N , Varmus, H E , and Coffin, J M., eds, (1985) "RNA Tumor Viruses," 2nd

Ed., Vols 1 and 2. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York Wong-Staal, F (1990). Human immunodeliciency viruses and their replication in "Fields Virology" (B N. Fields, D M Knipe, R M Chanock, M. S Hirsch, J. L Melnick, T P. Monath, and B Roizman, eds ), 2nd Ed , p. 1529 Raven, New York. Yarchoan, R., Mitsuya, H , and Broder, S. (1993) Challenges in the therapy of HIV infection. Iiiimiiiiol Todrn/ 14, 303

SB Chapter 36bh

Viral Syndromes

Viral Diseases of the Respiratory Tract 564

Viral Gastroenteritis 569

Viral Diseases of the Central Nervous System 571

Viral Skin Rashes 576

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers 579

Viral Genitourinary Infections 580

Viral Diseases of the Eye 581

Viral Arthritis 583 !

Viral Carditis 583 '

Viral Hepatitis 584 j

Viral Pancreatitis and Diabetes 586

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 586

Congenital and Perinatal ¡Viral Infections 586

Viral Infections in Immunocompromised Patients 588

Further Reading 589

In the preceding 19 chapters we have examined individually the contribution of various members of each of the relevant families of viruses to the spectrum of human disease. In this final chapter we examine the same scene from the opposite aspect, namely, to focus in turn on each of the major clinical syndromes. Of course, this is not a textbook of medicine nor even of infectious diseases, but of virology. We cannot devote space to detailed clinical descriptions of viral diseases and certainly not to their differential diagnosis from diseases caused by nonviral infectious agents, nor to their clinical management. Appropriate reference works on infectious diseases have been listed under Further Reading. What follows is intended to provide only a bird's-eye view of the commoner syndromes so that we may assess the contribution of particular viruses to each one. In so far as the clinical features as well as the pathogenesis and epidemiology of all the major human viral infections were dealt with in the previous 19 chapters, this final chapter should be regarded as little more than an appendix which brings all these virus-disease associations together in a number of summary tables for ready reference.

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