The 1977-1978 epidemic in Egypt raised the specter of future spread of Rift Valley fever to the Middle East and perhaps beyond. To minimize the chance of this happening ii may become necessary to police the international movement of livestock as well as to screen animals serologically from time to time. Spread to humans during outbreaks might be reduced by vigorous mosquito control and by implementing safer procedures for the killing and disposal of animals. Live attenuated and formalin-inactivated Rift Valley fever vaccines are available for immunization of susceptible livestock in enzootic areas, but they would need to be used systematically on a very large scale to prevent outbreaks. Persons who are particularly at risk, namely, laboratory personnel, veterinarians, and slaughtermen, in East and South Africa, should be vaccinated when a suitable vaccine is licensed for general use in humans.
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