Properties of Bunyaviridäe KB

Pathogenesis 513 i

Laboratory Diagnosis.. J...513

Rift Valley Fever 513

Sandfly Fever 515 !

California Encephalitis. i 515 Oropcmche Fever 516

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever 517

Hemorrhagic Fever with! Renal Syndrome..—518 Further Reading 52Ö

The largest family of viruses affecting mammals, Bunyaviridae, was one of the last to be recognized. Most of the over 300 members are arthropod-borne, with a variety of vectors and life cycles involving mammalian or avian vertebrate hosts. Many persist in their arthropod vectors via transovarial transmission; in an infected female arthropod the virus infects the eggs so that larvae, nymphs, and adults of succeeding generations are infected and are thus capable of transmitting the virus to vertebrate hosts. This is an important mechanism of overwintering. Humans are infected when bitten by the arthropod. However, viruses of the genus Hantavirus are transmitted by urine and saliva between reservoir rodent hosts; humans are infected when they come into contact with these rodents. More than a dozen bunyaviruses, from four genera, are pathogenic for humans, causing diseases ranging from undifferentiated fever, sometimes with a rash, to potentially lethal encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever.

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