The Immune System Includes Innate and Adaptive Components

Immunity—the state of protection from infectious disease —has both a less specific and more specific component. The less specific component, innate immunity, provides the first line of defense against infection. Most components of innate immunity are present before the onset of infection and constitute a set of disease-resistance mechanisms that are not specific to a particular pathogen but that include cellular and molecular components that recognize classes of molecules peculiar to frequently encountered pathogens. Phagocytic cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, barriers such as skin, and a variety of antimicrobial compounds synthesized by the host all play important roles in innate immunity. In contrast to the broad reactivity of the innate immune system, which is uniform in all members of a species, the specific component, adaptive immunity, does not come into play until there is an antigenic challenge to the organism. Adaptive immunity responds to the challenge with a high degree of specificity as well as the remarkable property of "memory." Typically, there is an adaptive immune response against an antigen within five or six days after the initial exposure to that antigen. Exposure to the same antigen some time in the future results in a memory response: the immune response to the second challenge occurs more quickly than the first, is stronger, and is often more effective in neutralizing and clearing the pathogen. The major agents of adaptive immunity are lymphocytes and the antibodies and other molecules they produce.

Because adaptive immune responses require some time to marshal, innate immunity provides the first line of defense during the critical period just after the host's exposure to a pathogen. In general, most of the microorganisms encountered by a healthy individual are readily cleared within a few days by defense mechanisms of the innate immune system before they activate the adaptive immune system.

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