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The American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology site includes an extensive library of information about allergic diseases.
The Web site of the American Association of Immunologists contains a good deal of information of interest to immunolo-gists.
PubMed, the National Library of Medicine database of more than 9 million publications, is the world's most comprehensive bibliographic database for biological and biomedical literature. It is also a highly user-friendly site.
Clinical Focus Question You have a young nephew who has developed a severe allergy to tree nuts. What precautions would you advise for him and for his parents? Should school officials be aware of this condition?
1. Indicate to which branch(es) of the immune system the following statements apply, using H for the humoral branch and CM for the cell-mediated branch. Some statements may apply to both branches.
a. _Involves class I MHC molecules b. _Responds to viral infection c. _Involves T helper cells d. _Involves processed antigen e. _ Most likely responds following an organ transplant f. _Involves T cytotoxic cells g. _Involves B cells h. Involves T cells i. Responds to extracellular bacterial infection j. _Involves secreted antibody k. _Kills virus-infected self-cells
2. Specific immunity exhibits four characteristic attributes, which are mediated by lymphocytes. List these four attributes and briefly explain how they arise.
4. Compare and contrast the four types of antigen-binding molecules used by the immune system—antibodies, T-cell receptors, class I MHC molecules, and class II MHC molecules—in terms of the following characteristics:
a. Specificity for antigen b. Cellular expression c. Types of antigen recognized
Co to www.whfreeman.com/immunology . Self-Test
Review and quiz of key terms
5. Fill in the blanks in the following statements with the most appropriate terms:
a. , , and all function as antigen-presenting cells.
b. Antigen-presenting cells deliver a signal to cells.
c. Only antigen-presenting cells express class _
MHC molecules, whereas nearly all cells express class
d. _antigens are internalized by antigen-presenting cells, degraded in the , and displayed with class
MHC molecules on the cell surface.
e. antigens are produced in altered self-cells, degraded in the , and displayed with class
MHC molecules on the cell surface.
6. Briefly describe the three major events in the inflammatory response.
7. The T cell is said to be class I restricted. What does this mean?
8. Match each term related to innate immunity (a-p) with the most appropriate description listed below (1-19). Each description may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
Terms a. _Fimbriae or pili b. _Exudate c. Sebum d. Margination e. _Dermis f. Lysosome g. Histamine h. Macrophage i. Lysozyme j. _Bradykinin k. _Interferon l. Edema m. Complement n. _Extravasation o. _C-reactive protein p. _Phagosome
(1) Thin outer layer of skin
(2) Layer of skin containing blood vessels and sebaceous glands
(3) One of several acute-phase proteins
(4) Hydrolytic enzyme found in mucous secretions
(5) Migration of a phagocyte through the endothelial wall into the tissues
(6) Acidic antibacterial secretion found on the skin
(7) Has antiviral activity
(8) Induces vasodilation
(9) Accumulation of fluid in intercellular space, resulting in swelling
(10) Large vesicle containing ingested particulate material
(11) Accumulation of dead cells, digested material, and fluid
(12) Adherence of phagocytic cells to the endothelial wall
(13) Structures involved in microbial adherence to mucous membranes
(14) Stimulates pain receptors in the skin
(15) Phagocytic cell found in the tissues
(16) Phagocytic cell found in the blood
(17) Group of serum proteins involved in cell lysis and clearance of antigen
(18) Cytoplasmic vesicle containing degradative enzymes
(19) Protein-rich fluid that leaks from the capillaries into the tissues
9. Innate and adaptive immunity act in cooperative and interdependent ways to protect the host. Discuss the collaboration of these two forms of immunity.
10. How might an arthropod, such as a cockroach or beetle, protect itself from infection? In what ways might the innate immune responses of an arthropod be similar to those of a plant and how might they differ?
11. Give examples of mild and severe consequences of immune dysfunction. What is the most common cause of immunodeficiency throughout the world today?
12. Adaptive immunity has evolved in vertebrates but they have also retained innate immunity. What would be the disadvantages of having only an adaptive immune system? Comment on how possession of both types of immunity enhances protection against infection.
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