B-cell development begins as lymphoid stem cells differentiate into the earliest distinctive B-lineage cell—the progenitor B cell (pro-B cell)—which expresses a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase called CD45R (sometimes called B220 in mice). Pro-B cells proliferate within the bone marrow, filling the extravascular spaces between large sinusoids in the shaft of a bone. Proliferation and differentiation of pro-B cells into precursor B cells (pre-B cells) requires the microenvironment provided by the bone-marrow stromal cells. If pro-B cells are removed from the bone marrow and cultured in vitro, they will not progress to more mature B-cell stages unless stromal cells are present. The stromal cells play two important roles: they interact directly with pro-B and pre-B cells, and they secrete various cytokines, notably IL-7, that support the developmental process.
Immature B cells
Immature B cells
stromal cell, which triggers a signal, mediated by the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Kit, that stimulates the pro-B cell to express receptors for IL-7. IL-7 released from the stromal cell then binds to the IL-7 receptors, inducing the pro-B cell to mature into a pre-B cell. Proliferation and differentiation evenutally produces immature B cells.
Bone-marrow stromal cells are required for maturation of progenitor B cells into precursor B cells. Pro-B cells bind to stromal cells by means of an interaction between VCAM-1 on the stromal cell and VLA-4 on the pro-B cell. This interaction promotes the binding of c-Kit on the pro-B cell to stem cell factor (SCF) on the stromal cell, which triggers a signal, mediated by the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Kit, that stimulates the pro-B cell to express receptors for IL-7. IL-7 released from the stromal cell then binds to the IL-7 receptors, inducing the pro-B cell to mature into a pre-B cell. Proliferation and differentiation evenutally produces immature B cells.
At the earliest developmental stage, pro-B cells require direct contact with stromal cells in the bone marrow. This interaction is mediated by several cell-adhesion molecules, including VLA-4 on the pro-B cell and its ligand, VCAM-1, on the stromal cell (Figure 11-2). After initial contact is made, a receptor on the pro-B cell called c-Kit interacts with a stromal-cell surface molecule known as stem-cell factor (SCF). This interaction activates c-Kit, which is a tyrosine kinase, and the pro-B cell begins to divide and differentiate into a pre-B cell and begins expressing a receptor for IL-7. The IL-7 secreted by the stromal cells drives the maturation process, eventually inducing down-regulation of the adhesion molecules on the pre-B cells, so that the proliferating cells can detach from the stromal cells. At this stage, pre-B cells no longer require direct contact with stromal cells but continue to require IL-7 for growth and maturation.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.