The physiologic barriers that contribute to innate immunity include temperature, pH, and various soluble and cell-associated molecules. Many species are not susceptible to certain diseases simply because their normal body temperature inhibits growth of the pathogens. Chickens, for example, have innate immunity to anthrax because their high body temperature inhibits the growth of the bacteria. Gastric acidity is an innate physiologic barrier to infection because very few ingested microorganisms can survive the low pH of the stomach contents. One reason newborns are susceptible to some diseases that do not afflict adults is that their stomach contents are less acid than those of adults.
A variety of soluble factors contribute to innate immunity, among them the soluble proteins lysozyme, interferon, and complement. Lysozyme, a hydrolytic enzyme found in mucous secretions and in tears, is able to cleave the peptido-glycan layer of the bacterial cell wall. Interferon comprises a group of proteins produced by virus-infected cells. Among the many functions of the interferons is the ability to bind to nearby cells and induce a generalized antiviral state. Complement, examined in detail in Chapter 13, is a group of serum proteins that circulate in an inactive state. A variety of specific and nonspecific immunologic mechanisms can convert the inactive forms of complement proteins into an active state with the ability to damage the membranes of pathogenic organisms, either destroying the pathogens or facilitating their clearance. Complement may function as an effector system that is triggered by binding of antibodies to certain cell surfaces, or it may be activated by reactions between complement molecules and certain components of microbial cell walls. Reactions between complement molecules or fragments of complement molecules and cellular receptors trigger activation of cells of the innate or adaptive immune systems. Recent studies on collectins indicate that these surfactant proteins may kill certain bacteria directly by disrupting their lipid membranes or, alternatively, by aggregating the bacteria to enhance their susceptibility to phagocytosis.
Many of the molecules involved in innate immunity have the property of pattern recognition, the ability to recognize a given class of molecules. Because there are certain types of molecules that are unique to microbes and never found in multi-cellular organisms, the ability to immediately recognize and combat invaders displaying such molecules is a strong feature of innate immunity. Molecules with pattern recognition ability may be soluble, like lysozyme and the complement components described above, or they may be cell-associated receptors. Among the class of receptors designated the toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2 recognizes the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found on Gram-negative bacteria. It has long been recognized that
(a) Electronmicrograph of macrophage (pink) attack- (a) ing Escherichia coli (green). The bacteria are phagocytized as described in part b and breakdown products secreted. The monocyte (purple) has been recruited to the vicinity of the encounter by soluble factors secreted by the macrophage. The red sphere is an erythrocyte. (b) Schematic diagram of the steps in phagocytosis of a bacterium. [Part a, Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc./Dennis Kunkel.]
systemic exposure of mammals to relatively small quantities of purified LPS leads to an acute inflammatory response (see below). The mechanism for this response is via a TLR on macrophages that recognizes LPS and elicits a variety of molecules in the inflammatory response upon exposure. When the TLR is exposed to the LPS upon local invasion by a Gram-negative bacterium, the contained response results in elimination of the bacterial challenge.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.