Initial attempts to determine the amino acid sequence of the heavy and light chains of antibody were hindered because insufficient amounts of homogeneous protein were available. Although the basic structure and chemical properties of differ ent antibodies are similar, their antigen-binding specificities, and therefore their exact amino acid sequences, are very different. The population of antibodies in the serum y-globulin fraction consists of a heterogeneous spectrum of antibodies. Even if immunization is done with a hapten-carrier conjugate, the antibodies formed just to the hapten alone are heterogeneous: they recognize different epitopes of the hapten and have different binding affinities. This heterogeneity of serum antibodies made them unsuitable for sequencing studies.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.