Multiple Sclerosis Attacks the Central Nervous System

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurologic disability associated with disease in Western countries. The symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as paralysis or loss of vision. Most people with MS are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 40. Individuals with this disease produce autoreactive T cells that participate in the formation of inflammatory lesions along the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. The cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS contains activated T lymphocytes, which infiltrate the brain tissue and cause characteristic inflammatory lesions, destroying the myelin. Since myelin functions to insulate the nerve fibers, a breakdown in the myelin sheath leads to numerous neurologic dysfunctions.

Epidemiological studies indicate that MS is most common in the Northern hemisphere and, interestingly, in the United States. Populations who live north of the 37th parallel have a prevalence of 110-140 cases per 100,000, while those who live south of the 37th parallel show a prevalence of 57-78 per 100,000. And individuals from south of the 37th parallel who move north assume a new risk if the move occurs before 15 years of age. These provocative data suggest that there is an environmental component of the risk of contracting MS. This is not the entire story, however, since genetic influences also are important. While the average person in the United States has about one chance in 1000 of developing MS, close relatives of people with MS, such as children or siblings, have 1 chance in 50 to 100 of developing MS. The identical twin of a person with MS has a 1 in 3 chance of developing the disease. These data point strongly to the genetic component of the disease. And, as is described in the Clinical Focus of this chapter, MS affects women two to three times more frequently than men.

The cause of MS, like most autoimmune diseases, is not well understood. However, there are some suggestions that infection by certain viruses may predispose a person to MS. Certainly some viruses can cause demyelinating diseases, and it is tempting to speculate that virus infection plays a significant role in MS, but at present there is no definitive data implicating a particular virus.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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