Inbred Strains Can Reduce Experimental Variation

To control experimental variation caused by differences in the genetic backgrounds of experimental animals, immu-nologists often work with inbred strains—that is, genetically identical animals produced by inbreeding. The rapid breeding cycle of mice makes them particularly well suited for the production of inbred strains, which are developed by repeated inbreeding between brother and sister littermates. In this way the heterozygosity of alleles that is normally found in randomly outbred mice is replaced by homozygosity at all

TABLE 23-1

Immunological methods described in other chapters

Method

Location

Bone-marrow transplantation Preparation of immunotoxins Genetic engineering of chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies

Ch. 2 Clinical Focus Fig. 4-22 Fig. 5-20 and Ch 5 Clinical Focus

Bone-marrow transplantation Preparation of immunotoxins Genetic engineering of chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies

Ch. 2 Clinical Focus Fig. 4-22 Fig. 5-20 and Ch 5 Clinical Focus

Determination of antibody affinity

Fig. 6.2

by equilibrium dialysis

Precipitation reactions

Fig. 6.4

Immunodiffusion and

Figs. 6.5 and 6.6

immunoelectrophoresis

Hemagglutination

Fig. 6.7

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

Fig. 6.9

ELISA assays

Fig. 6.10

ELISPOT assay

Fig. 6.11

Western blotting

Fig. 6.12

Immunoprecipitation

Fig. 6.13

Immunofluorescence

Fig. 6.14

Flow cytometry

Fig. 6.15

Production of congenic mice

Fig. 7-3

Mixed lymphocyte reaction

(MLR)

Fig. 14-16

Cell-mediated lympholysis

(CML)

Fig. 14-17

Production of vaccinia vector

vaccine

Fig. 18-5

Production of multivalent

Fig. 18-7

subunit vaccines

HLA typing

Fig. 21-4

loci. Repeated inbreeding for 20 generations usually yields an inbred strain whose progeny are homozygous at more than 98% of all loci. More than 150 different inbred strains of mice are available, each designated by a series of letters and/ or numbers (Table 23-2). Most strains can be purchased by immunologists from such suppliers as the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. Inbred strains have also been produced in rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, and domestic fowl. Because inbred strains of animals are genetically identical (syngeneic) within that strain, their immune responses can be studied in the absence of variables introduced by individual genetic differences—an invaluable property. With inbred strains, lymphocyte subpopulations isolated from one animal can be injected into another animal of the same strain without eliciting a rejection reaction. This type of experimental system permitted immunologists to first demonstrate that lymphocytes from an antigen-primed animal could transfer immunity to an unprimed syngeneic recipient.

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