Immunoelectrophoresis Combines Electrophoresis and Double Immunodiffusion

In immunoelectrophoresis, the antigen mixture is first elec-trophoresed to separate its components by charge. Troughs are then cut into the agar gel parallel to the direction of the electric field, and antiserum is added to the troughs. Antibody and antigen then diffuse toward each other and produce lines of precipitation where they meet in appropriate proportions (Figure 6-6a). Immunoelectrophoresis is used in clinical laboratories to detect the presence or absence of proteins in the serum. A sample of serum is elec-trophoresed, and the individual serum components are identified with antisera specific for a given protein or im-munoglobulin class (Figure 6-6b). This technique is useful in determining whether a patient produces abnormally low amounts of one or more isotypes, characteristic of certain immunodeficiency diseases. It can also show whether a patient overproduces some serum protein, such as albumin, immunoglobulin, or transferrin. The immunoelectropho-retic pattern of serum from patients with multiple myeloma, for example, shows a heavy distorted arc caused by the large amount of myeloma protein, which is monoclonal Ig and therefore uniformly charged (Figure 6-6b). Because immunoelectrophoresis is a strictly qualitative technique that only detects relatively high antibody concentrations (greater than several hundred ^g/ml), it utility is limited to the detection

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Immunoelectrophoresis of an antigen mixture. (a) An antigen preparation (orange) is first electrophoresed, which separates the component antigens on the basis of charge. Antiserum (blue) is then added to troughs on one or both sides of the separated antigens and allowed to diffuse; in time, lines of precipitation (colored arcs) form where specific antibody and antigen interact. (b) Im-munoelectrophoretic patterns of human serum from a patient with myeloma. The patient produces a large amount of a monoclonal IgG

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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