Hybrid Lymphoid Cell Lines

In somatic-cell hybridization, immunologists fuse normal B or T lymphocytes with tumor cells, obtaining hybrid cells, or heterokaryons, containing nuclei from both parent cells. Random loss of some chromosomes and subsequent cell proliferation yield a clone of cells that contain a single nucleus with chromosomes from each of the fused cells; such a clone is called a hybridoma.

Historically, cell fusion was promoted with Sendai virus, but now it is generally done with polyethylene glycol. Normal antigen-primed B cells can be fused with cancerous plasma cells, called myeloma cells (Figure 23-2). The hybridoma thus formed continues to express the antibody genes of the normal B lymphocyte but is capable of unlimited growth, a characteristic of the myeloma cell. B-cell hybridomas that secrete antibody with a single antigenic specificity, called monoclonal antibody, in reference to its derivation from a single clone, have revolutionized not only immunology but biomedical research as well as the clinical laboratory. Chapter 4 describes the production and uses of monoclonal antibodies in detail (see Figures 4-21).

T-cell hybridomas can also be obtained by fusing T lymphocytes with cancerous T-cell lymphomas. Again, the resulting hybridoma continues to express the genes of the normal T cell but acquires the immortal-growth properties of the cancerous T lymphoma cell. Immunologists have generated a number of stable hybridoma cell lines representing T-helper and T-cytotoxic lineages.

Chromosomes

Normal T or B cell Cancerous T or B cell (dies after 7-10 (grows continuously days in culture) in culture)

Normal T or B cell Cancerous T or B cell (dies after 7-10 (grows continuously days in culture) in culture)

Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol

Heterokaryon

Random chromosomal loss

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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