The AAL Reference Laboratories web site provides the rationale for clinical tests of NK cell function and tells how such tests are performed.

Study Questions

Clinical Focus Question Would you expect the Chediak-Higashi syndrome to have its immediate effects on innate or adaptive immunity? Considering what was learned in Chapter 12, which T cell-mediated adaptive responses would you predict would be more significantly affected by CHS? Justify your answer.

1. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. If you believe a statement is false, explain why.

a. Cytokines can regulate which branch of the immune system is activated.

Go to Review and quiz of key terms

Self-Test b. Both CTLs and NK cells release perforin after interacting with target cells.

c. Antigen activation of naive CTL-Ps requires a co-stimulatory signal delivered by interaction of CD28 and B7.

d. CTLs use a single mechanism to kill target cells.

e. The secretion of certain critical cytokines is the basis of the role played by T cells in DTH reactions.

2. You have a monoclonal antibody specific for LFA-1.You perform CML assays of a CTL clone, using target cells for which the clone is specific, in the presence and absence of this antibody. Predict the relative amounts of 51Cr released in the two assays. Explain your answer.

3. You decide to co-culture lymphocytes from the strains listed in the table below in order to observe the mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In each case, indicate which lymphocyte population^) you would expect to proliferate.

Population 1

Population 2


C57BL/6 (H-2b)

CBA (H-2k)

C57BL/6 (H-2b)

CBA (H-2k) mitomycin C-treated

C57BL/6 (H-2b)

(CBA X C57BL/6) F1 (H-2k/b)

C57BL/6 (H-2b)

C57L (H-2b)

4. In the mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR), the uptake of [3H]thymidine often is used to assess cell proliferation.

a. Which cell type proliferates in the MLR?

b. How could you prove the identity of the proliferating cell?

c. Explain why production of IL-2 also can be used to assess cell proliferation in the MLR.

5. Indicate whether each of the properties listed below is exhibited by Th cells, CTLs, both TH cells and CTLs, or neither cell type.

c. _Is class I MHC restricted d. _Expresses CD8

e. _Is required for B-cell activation f. _Is cytotoxic for target cells g. _Is the main proliferating cell in an MLR

h. _Is the effector cell in a CML assay i. Is class II MHC restricted j. _Expresses CD4

k. _Expresses CD3

l. _Adheres to target cells by LFA-1

m. Can express the IL-2 receptor n. _Expresses the ap T-cell receptor o. _Is the principal target of HIV

p. Responds to soluble antigens alone q. _Produces perforin r. _Expresses the CD40 ligand on its surface

6. Mice from several different inbred strains were infected with LCM virus, and several days later their spleen cells were isolated. The ability of the primed spleen cells to lyse LCM-infected, 51Cr-labeled target cells from various strains was determined. In the accompanying table, indicate with a (+) or (-) whether the spleen cells listed in the left column would cause 51Cr release from the target cells listed in the headings across the top of the table.

Source of primed spleen cells

51Cr release from LCM-infected target cells

B10.D2 (H-2")

B10 (H-2b)


B10.D2 (H-20)

B10 (H-2b)

BALB/c (H-2d)

BALB/c X B10 (H-2b/d)

7. A mouse is infected with influenza virus. How could you assess whether the mouse has TH and TC cells specific for influenza?

8. Explain why NK cells from a given host will kill many types of virus-infected cells but do not kill normal cells from that host.

9. Consider the following genetically altered mice and predict the outcome of the indicated procedures. H-2d mice in which both perforin and Fas ligand have been knocked out are immunized with LCM virus. One week after immunization, T cells from these mice are harvested and tested for cytotoxicity on the following:

a. Target cells from normal LCM-infected H-2b mice b. Target cells from normal H-2d mice c. Target cells from H-2d mice in which both perforin and Fas have been knocked out d. Target cells from LCM-infected normal H-2d mice e. Target cells from H-2d mice in which both perforin and FasL have been knocked out

10. You wish to determine the levels of class I-restricted T cells in an HIV-infected individual that are specific for a peptide that is generated from gp120, a component of the virus. Assume that you know the HLA type of the subject. What method would you use and how would you perform the analysis? Please be as specific as you can.

Leukocyte Migration and Inflammation any types of leukocytes move from one part of the body to another. This is especially true of lymphocytes, which circulate continually in the blood and lymph and, in common with other types of leukocytes, migrate into the tissues at sites of infection or tissue injury. This recirculation not only increases the chance that lymphocytes specific for a particular antigen will encounter that antigen but also is critical to development of an inflammatory response. Inflammation is a complex response to local injury or other trauma; it is characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain. Inflammation involves various immune-system cells and numerous mediators. Assembling and regulating inflammatory responses would be impossible without the controlled migration of leukocyte populations. This chapter covers the molecules and processes that play a role in leukocyte migration, various molecules that mediate inflammation, and the characteristic physiologic changes that accompany inflammatory responses.

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