Hashimotos Thyroiditis

In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which is most frequently seen in middle-aged women, an individual produces auto-antibodies and sensitized TH1 cells specific for thyroid antigens. The DTH response is characterized by an intense infiltration of the thyroid gland by lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells, which form lymphocytic follicles and germinal centers (Figure 20-1). The ensuing inflammatory response causes a goiter, or visible enlargement of the thyroid gland, a physiological response to hypothyroidism. Antibodies are formed to a number of thyroid proteins, including thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase, both of which are involved in the uptake of iodine. Binding of the auto-antibodies to these proteins interferes with iodine uptake and leads to decreased production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism).

Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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