Evidence Implicating the CD4 T Cell MHC and TCR in Autoimmunity

The inappropriate response to self-antigens that characterizes all autoimmune diseases can involve either the humoral or cell-mediated branches of the immune system. Identifying the defects underlying human autoimmune diseases has been difficult; more success has been achieved in characterizing the immune defects in the various animal models. Each of the animal models has implicated the CD4+ T cell as the primary mediator of autoimmune disease. For example, the evidence is quite strong that, in mice, EAE is caused by CD4+ TH1 cells specific for the immunizing antigen. The disease can be transferred from one animal into another by T cells from animals immunized with either MBP or PLP or by cloned T-cell lines from such animals. It also has been shown that disease can be prevented by treating animals with anti-CD4 antibodies. These data are compelling evidence for the involvement of CD4 in the establishment of EAE.

T-cell recognition of antigen, of course, involves a trimol-ecular complex of the T-cell receptor, an MHC molecule, and antigenic peptide (see Figure 9-16). Thus, an individual susceptible to autoimmunity must possess MHC molecules and T-cell receptors capable of binding self-antigens.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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