Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, commonly known as ELISA (or EIA), is similar in principle to RIA but depends on an enzyme rather than a radioactive label. An enzyme conjugated with an antibody reacts with a colorless substrate to generate a colored reaction product. Such a substrate is called a chromogenic substrate. A number of enzymes have been employed for ELISA, including alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, and p-galactosidase. These assays approach the sensitivity of RIAs and have the advantage of being safer and less costly.
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