Adding to the complexity of the type I reaction is the variety of cytokines released from mast cells and eosinophils. Some of these may contribute to the clinical manifestations of type I hypersensitivity. Human mast cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and TNF-a These cytokines alter the local microenvironment, eventually leading to the recruitment of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils. IL-4 increases IgE production by B cells. IL-5 is especially important in the recruitment and activation of eosinophils. The high concentrations of TNF-a secreted by mast cells may contribute to shock in systemic anaphylaxis. (This effect may parallel the role of TNF-a in bacterial septic shock and toxic-shock syndrome described in Chapter 12.)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment