As noted already, to exert their biological effects, cytokines must first bind to specific receptors expressed on the membrane of responsive target cells. Because these receptors are expressed by many types of cells, the cytokines can affect a diverse array of cells. Biochemical characterization of cyto-kine receptors initially progressed at a very slow pace because their levels on the membrane of responsive cells is quite low. As with the cytokines themselves, cloning of the genes encoding cytokine receptors has led to rapid advances in the identification and characterization of these receptors.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.