A bacterial infection often elicits the production of serum antibodies specific for surface antigens on the bacterial cells. The presence of such antibodies can be detected by bacterial agglutination reactions. Serum from a patient thought to be infected with a given bacterium is serially diluted in an array of tubes to which the bacteria is added. The last tube showing visible agglutination will reflect the serum antibody titer of the patient. The agglutinin titer is defined as the reciprocal of the greatest serum dilution that elicits a positive agglutination reaction. For example, if serial twofold dilutions of serum are prepared and if the dilution of 1/640 shows agglutination but the dilution of 1/1280 does not, then the agglutination titer of the patient's serum is 640. In some cases serum can be diluted up to 1/50,000 and still show agglutination of bacteria.
The agglutinin titer of an antiserum can be used to diagnose a bacterial infection. Patients with typhoid fever, for example, show a significant rise in the agglutination titer to Salmonella typhi. Agglutination reactions also provide a way to type bacteria. For instance, different species of the bacterium Salmonella can be distinguished by agglutination reactions with a panel of typing antisera.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.