The antigenic specificity of each B cell is determined by the membrane-bound antigen-binding receptor (i.e., antibody) expressed by the cell. As a B cell matures in the bone marrow, its specificity is created by random rearrangements of a series
Overview of the humoral and cell-mediated branches of the immune system. In the humoral response, B cells interact with antigen and then differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The secreted antibody binds to the antigen and facilitates its clearance from the body. In the cell-mediated re sponse, various subpopulations of T cells recognize antigen presented on self-cells. TH cells respond to antigen by producing cytokines. TC cells respond to antigen by developing into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which mediate killing of altered self-cells (e.g., virus-infected cells).
of gene segments that encode the antibody molecule (see Chapter 5). As a result of this process, each mature B cell possesses a single functional gene encoding the antibody heavy chain and a single functional gene encoding the antibody light chain; the cell therefore synthesizes and displays antibody with one specificity on its membrane. All antibody molecules on a given B lymphocyte have identical specificity, giving each B lymphocyte, and the clone of daughter cells to which it gives rise, a distinct specificity for a single epitope on an antigen. The mature B lymphocyte is therefore said to be antigenically committed.
The random gene rearrangements during B-cell maturation in the bone marrow generate an enormous number of different antigenic specificities. The resulting B-cell population, which consists of individual B cells each expressing a unique antibody, is estimated to exhibit collectively more than 1010 different antigenic specificities. The enormous diversity in the mature B-cell population is later reduced by a selection process in the bone marrow that eliminates any B cells with membrane-bound antibody that recognizes self-components. The selection process helps to ensure that self-reactive antibodies (auto-antibodies) are not produced.
The attributes of specificity and diversity also characterize the antigen-binding T-cell receptor (TCR) on T cells. As in B-cell maturation, the process of T-cell maturation includes random rearrangements of a series of gene segments that encode the cell's antigen-binding receptor (see Chapter 9). Each T lymphocyte cell expresses about 105 receptors, and all of the receptors on the cell and its clonal progeny have identical specificity for antigen. The random rearrangement of the
TCR genes is capable of generating on the order of 109 unique antigenic specificities. This enormous potential diversity is later diminished through a selection process in the thymus that eliminates any T cell with self-reactive receptors and ensures that only T cells with receptors capable of recognizing antigen associated with MHC molecules will be able to mature (see Chapter 10).
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.