Forward Head Posture Fix

Forward Head Posture Fix

This ebook guide teaches you the muscles that you need to work to make sure that you have excellent posture all day long, and that you will have the benefits that go along with good posture. You will be able to get rid of many headaches, brain fog, and aching neck muscles by using this workout. There is no need to look old! Stooping is the sign of old age Even if you are an older person you too can work out this muscle group to give you the powerful posture of a much younger person! This bad posture that we are correcting is called texting neck. It comes when you look down at something (like a book or your phone) too often, which puts a huge strain on your neck. You will learn how to fix this problem and help your neck to be in better shape today. Your neck is supposed to remain vertical; we can help put it back where it goes to make sure that you stay healthy for years to come. Continue reading...

Forward Head Posture Fix Summary


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Author: Mike Westerdal
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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

The Terminations of the Brainstem Motor Tracts Correlate With Their Functions

The vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts descend medially in the spinal cord and terminate in the ventromedial part of the intermediate zone, an area in the gray matter containing propriospinal interneurons (Fig. 5.12). There are also some direct connections with motor neurons of the neck and back muscles and the proximal limb muscles. These tracts are the main CNS pathways for maintaining posture and head position during movement.

Supplementary Motor Area Seizures with Asymmetric Tonic Posturing

Posturing as an ictal phenomen is thought to originate in this area. Seizures originating in the SMA are explosive in onset. The patient may suddenly involuntarily posture an arm or leg, with preserved consciousness and at times with preserved motor function of the ipsilateral side. The patient may try to catch or hold down his tonic extremity with his uninvolved arm. If neck muscles are involved there will be head turning toward the extended arm with the patient assuming a typical fencing posture (Figure 2.5). Seizures are brief, often nocturnal, and may occur in clusters (28-30).

Examination and investigation

Root avulsions occur proximal to the dorsal root ganglion, with loss of dorsal sensibility and denervation of dorsal neck muscles plexus ruptures occur more distally. Mapping sensory and motor defects gives a good indication of the nature of the injury. Paralysis of the rhomboids or serratus anterior implies a proximal, usually preganglionic lesion, at the C5 or C6 level, respectively. Horner's sign (ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis, enophthalmos) implies a preganglionic C8 T1 lesion of the cervical sympathetic chain.

Association Cortex and Perceptual Processing

Association Areas The Cortex

Although neurons in the earlier stages of the sensory pathways are associated with perception, information from the primary sensory cortical areas is elaborated after it is relayed to a cortical association area. The region of association cortex closest to the primary sensory cortical area processes the information in fairly simple ways and serves basic sensory-related functions. Regions farther from the primary sensory areas process the information in more complicated ways, including, for example, greater input from areas of the brain serving arousal, attention, memory, and language. Some of the neurons in these latter regions also receive input concerning two or more other types of sensory stimuli. Thus, an association-area neuron receiving input from both the visual cortex and the neck region of the somatosensory cortex might be concerned with integrating visual information with sensory information about head position so that, for example, a tree is understood to be vertical even...

Inspiration and Expiration

Human Expiration

An unforced, or quiet, inspiration results primarily from contraction of the dome-shaped diaphragm, which lowers and flattens when it contracts. This increases thoracic volume in a vertical direction. Inspiration is aided by contraction of the parasternal and external intercostals, which raise the ribs when they contract and increase thoracic volume laterally. Other thoracic muscles become involved in forced (deep) inspiration. The most important of these are the scalenes, followed by the pec-toralis minor, and in extreme cases the sternocleidomastoid muscles. Contraction of these muscles elevates the ribs in an an-teroposterior direction at the same time, the upper rib cage is stabilized so that the intercostals become more effective. The increase in thoracic volume produced by these muscle contractions decreases intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar) pressure, thereby causing air to flow into the lungs. Sternocleidomastoid Scalenes Sternocleidomastoid Scalenes such as the scalenes and...

Clinical Correlates

Lateral Cervical Cyst

Branchial fistulas occur when the second pharyngeal arch fails to grow cau-dally over the third and fourth arches, leaving remnants of the second, third, and fourth clefts in contact with the surface by a narrow canal (Fig. 15.14A). Such a fistula, found on the lateral aspect of the neck directly anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, usually provides drainage for a lateral cervical cyst (Fig. 15.14B). These cysts, remnants of the cervical sinus, are most often just below the angle of the jaw (Fig. 15.15), although they may be found anywhere along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Frequently a lateral cervical cyst is not visible at birth but becomes evident as it enlarges during childhood. Figure 15.14 A. Lateral cervical cyst opening at the side of the neck byway of a fistula. B. Lateral cervical cysts and fistulas in front of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Note also the region of preauricular fistulas. C. A lateral cervical cyst opening into the pharynx...

Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

Imals, fish, and amphibians is the same as the temperature of the environment in which they live. Such organisms are called poikilotherms. In poikilothermic organisms, metabolic rate increases as the environmental temperature increases. Such organisms move slowly and grow slowly when the temperature is cold, since their metabolic rate is very low at cold temperatures. To compare the metabolic rates of different poiki-lotherms, one must measure their rate of metabolism under standard conditions. Standard metabolism is usually defined as the rate of energy use when the animal is resting quietly, twelve hours after the last meal, and is at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius however, for small invertebrates, protists, and bacteria, only temperature is usually controlled. Most reptiles, birds, and mammals can maintain their body temperature at a constant level even when the environmental temperature changes greatly. Such organisms are called homeo-therms. Birds and mammals can maintain...

Transition Point Between Distended And Collapsed Veins

Radiofemoral Delay

The internal jugular vein enters the neck behind the mastoid process. Il runs deep to the sternomastoid muscle before entering the thorax between its sternal and clavicular heads. Because of its deep position the internal jugular vein can only be examined when the neck muscles are relaxed. Only a diffuse pulsation can be seen and the vein is not visible. The external jugular vein is visible but it is not routinely examined because it is prone to kinking and partial obstruction as it traverses the deep fascia of the neck.

Examination Of The Arterial Pulse

Inspection of the carotid arterial and jugular venous pulsations should be performed at the same time. The carotid pulse is usually best examined with the sternocleidomastoid muscles relaxed and with the head rotated slightly toward the examiner. The carotid pulse may be timed from the first heart sound, which is heard slightly before the pulsation. The carotid pulse should be palpated in the lower half of the patient's neck in order to avoid carotid sinus compression. Occasionally, it is useful to palpate two arteries simultaneously (e.g., radial and femoral) to detect an apparent pulse wave delay, such as occurs in patients with coarctation of the aorta.

Anatomic Considerations

Spine Biopsy

An anterolateral approach is recommended for lesions located in the upper cervical spine and allows access to the anterior vertebral body and disc space. Typically a 22-gauge needle using a tandem or coaxial guiding technique is introduced medial to the anterior margin of the sterno-cleidomastoid muscle. The carotid sheath and sternocleidomastoid muscle are manually retracted laterally and the needle is advanced between the airway and the carotid sheath to the desired location (Fig. 13). A coaxial trephine needle system can be placed over the guiding needle and subsequent core biopsy can be performed. Once the core is obtained, the trephine system can remain in place and cutting or FNA needle biopsy can be performed. The posterolateral approach is used for lesions of the lower cervical spine (C4-C7) and posterior elements (29,77). Needle systems similar to those used for the anterolateral approach can be used and are introduced posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Fig. 13....

The Midbrain and the Forebrain

The midbrain's tegmentum contains several fiber tracts carrying sensory information to the forebrain and carrying impulses among various brain-stem nuclei and the forebrain. Two cranial nerve nuclei concerned with the control of eye movements are also in the tegmentum. The reticular formation extends through the tegmen-tum and regulates the level of arousal. It also helps to control various stereotyped body movements, especially those involving the trunk and neck muscles. Finally, the tegmentum contains the red nucleus, which, in conjunction with the cerebellum and basal ganglia, serves to coordinate body movements. The substantia nigra functions as part of the basal ganglia to permit subconscious muscle control.

Vestibulo Spinal Pathways Active Versus Passive Head Motion

Spinal Vord

A distinct population of vestibular nuclei neurons, called vestibular-only (VO) neurons, are known to receive direct monosynaptic projections from vestibular nerve afferents and are not sensitive to eye movements (Cullen and McCrea, 1993 Scudder and Fuchs, 1992). Like PVP neurons, which also receive direct inputs from the vestibular afferents, the activity of VO neurons increases for ipsilaterally directed head rotations. However, unlike PVP neurons, VO neurons do not play a role in mediating the VOR. Instead, VO neurons project to the cervical spinal cord, and are thought to mediate the VCR pathway (Figure 16.3a Boyle, 1993 Boyle et al., 1996 McCrea et al., 1999). In addition, VO neurons project to the nodulus and uvula subdivisions of the cerebellum (Voogd et al., 1996 Wearne et al., 1998 Wylie et al., 1994). Recent lesion experiments have implicated these cerebellar structures in the control and coordination of head and body posture (Reisine and Raphan, 1992 Wearne et al., 1998...

Endocrine myopathies

Myotonic dystrophy is an inherited disease that begins early in adult life. It is manifested by distal muscle weakness and atrophy. Deep tendon reflexes are reduced. Ptosis may be present, and closure of the eyelids is also weak. Atrophy of the temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles is severe. Other clinical features include early frontal alopecia, cataracts, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and testicular atrophy. Mental retardation may occur. Dystrophic cardiac disease occurs late. The disease can be quite variable, and some patients and affected family members may manifest only one or two features.

Extrapyramidal Effects

Among the most significant adverse reactions associated with the antipsychotic drugs are the extrapyramidal effects. The term extrapyramidal effects refers to a group of adverse reactions occurring on the extrapyramidal portion of the nervous system as a result of antipsy-chotic drugs. This part of the nervous system affects body posture and promotes smooth and uninterrupted movement of various muscle groups. Antipsychotics disturb the function of the extrapyramidal portion of the nervous system, causing abnormal muscle movement. Extrapyramidal effects include Parkinson-like symptoms (see Chap. 29), akathisia, and dystonia (see Display 32-1).

Clinical Aspects Of Narcolepsy

Severe daytime sleepiness, often combined with nocturnal sleep fragmentation, leads to a feeling of constant tiredness in narcoleptics. This chronic sleep pressure coupled with poor sleep wake state boundary control may underlie the commonly observed sudden, uncontrollable bouts of sleepiness or sleep attacks during the day. Cataplexy (Gk., to strike down ), another cardinal symptom of narcolepsy, was first used by Loewenfeld (1902) to describe the sudden, bilateral loss of muscle tone without loss of consciousness. Triggered by any situation that requires sudden action or strong emotion (laughing and mirth are the most commonly reported triggers), these attacks may be partial (isolated muscle groups) or complete (causing complete collapse), but rarely involve all muscles simultaneously. The knees (buckling) and head neck muscles (head bobbing, jaw sagging and slurred speech) are most commonly affected, with such episodes lasting for seconds to (rarely) minutes. Muscle weakness...

Testing procedure

The DUS examination must include a blood pressure measurement in both arms. A blood pressure differential of 20 mmHg is indicative of possible brachiocephalic, subclavian or axillary artery stenosis. Testing proceeds with the patient in the supine position with the head turned away from the side being examined. The carotid sheath travels along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and this is where imaging can commence. The common carotid artery is identified at its origin in the The transducer may be placed anterior, medial, or posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle to optimize flow visualization. Any luminal or wall abnormalities should be reported. Velocity measurements are recorded with an angle of insonation of 60 . Commonly, velocity measurements are obtained at the proximal and distal common carotid artery (CCA), external carotid artery (ECA) ICA (proximal, middle, and distal) and vertebral. Every effort should be made to follow the ICA as far cephalad as...


In 1993, Morton's group also reported their experience of selective lymphadenectomy for head and neck melanoma that drained to the cervical nodes 39 . All patients had preoperative cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy. At the time of surgery, blue dye alone was used to identify the sentinel nodes. The sentinel node was found in 71 of the 79 cervical drainage basins (90 ). Most of the missed sentinel nodes were from the occipital, postauricular, or parotid basins, where the blue dye is difficult to identify. There were no regional recurrences in those patients with tumor-negative dissections during a mean follow-up of 27 months. Although preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was used in all cases, this early experience with selective lymphadenectomy demonstrated the intrinsic difficulty with the cervical basin. The lymphatic drainage from the head and neck is difficult to determine from the anatomical location of the primary 20 . As our own experience suggests, sentinel nodes in the midst of the...


Unilateral pain radiating to the throat, ear, eye, nose, cheek or face is typical of the neuralgias. Facial pain extending beyond the territory of the trigeminal nerve and which may be bilateral or involve the tongue or mouth suggests a psychogenic cause. Pain radiating to the neck with tenderness of the neck muscles is typical of tension headache and cervicogenic headache.

Preoperative Phase

Phase, including the best strategies to counteract the main postoperative problems, thus developing a greater awareness of their condition. However, depending on the urgency of the patient's condition, this rehabilitative intervention may not always be possible, particularly if patient is affected by Crohn's disease. During the preoperative phase, a preventive functional evaluation is established. Patients are trained in breathing induction and relaxation techniques. Moreover, they learn the different types of cough, to be mainly performed using their intercostal muscles, and breathing techniques. They are also trained to adopt the correct posture when forced to bed for certain periods.

Continuous Murmurs

High-velocity blood flow through veins and arteries may cause a continuous murmur. The cervical venous hum is a continuous murmur with diastolic accentuation and is easily heard in almost all children. This murmur also can be heard in healthy adults and is present in nearly all women in the later stages of pregnancy. High cardiac output states such as thyrotoxicosis and anemia are also associated with easily heard venous hums. This murmur is usually poorly heard in the supine position, and its presence in this position in an adult strongly suggests a hyperdynamic circulatory state. Peak intensity is in the supraclavicular fossa just lateral to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and it is usually more prominent on the right side. When the murmur is loud, it may radiate below the clavicles and occasionally can be confused with the continuous murmur of patent ductus arteriosus. This error should never be made, however, because the cervical venous hum can be terminated easily by digital...

Indirect Methods

Factors contributing to variations in an individual's blood pressure during daily activities include (1) body posture, (2) state of muscular, cerebral, or gastrointestinal activity, (3) emotional or painful stimuli, (4) environmental factors such as temperature and noise level, and (5) the use of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, and other drugs with direct or neurally mediated vasomotor properties.125,154 Twenty-four-hour pressures, obtained from normal and hypertensive subjects with an automatic recorder, have shown considerable variability with activity and emotional stimuli.155,156 The average diurnal pattern of blood pressure consists of an increase throughout the day and early evening and a significant, rapid decline to a low point during the early, deep stage of sleep.


During experimental sessions, the monkeys were seated in a primate chair that was fixed to the suprastructure of a vestibular turntable. Gaze and head positions were measured using the magnetic search coil technique (Fuchs and Robinson, 1966), and extracellular single-unit activity was recorded using enamel insulated tungsten microelectrodes (7-10 Mfi impedance, Frederick-Haer) as has been described elsewhere (Sylvestre and Cullen, 1999). The torque produced by the monkey against the head restraint was measured using a reaction torque transducer (Sensotec). A Gaussian function was convolved with the spike train (standard deviation of 5 ms for saccades and gaze shifts and 10 ms for the remainder of the paradigms) to generate the spike density profile of the neuron (Cullen et al., 1996). Gaze and head position signals were filtered digitally at 125 Hz, and eye position was calculated from the difference between filtered gaze and head position signals. Position signals were...

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