The Secret to Happiness
Enhancement of sensory functions is well accepted because we usually presume that prosthetic interventions only improve natural functions or replace impaired functions without changing the personality. What about psychopharmacological agents changing attention and behaviour in school, school success etc. The use of stimulants in children and adolescents not only for the treatment of ADHD but also for cognitive enhancement during examination periods appears to be growing, especially in the United States (Fegert et al. 2002 McCabe et al. 2005). The President's Council on Bioethics in its study Beyond Therapy - Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness summarises
Between cause (karma), and its effects . . . happiness and suffering do not simply come about by chance or irrelevant causes.''. . . it (Buddhism) . . . attaches great importance towards wildlife and the protection of the environment on which every being in this world depends on survival . . .' Hindu 'Hinduism believes in the all encompassing sovereignty of the divine, manifesting itself in a graded scale of evolution. The human race, though at the top of the evolutionary pyramid at present, is not seen as something apart from the earth.' 'This leads to a reverence for animal life. The Yajurveda lays down that ''no person should kill animals helpful to all. Rather, by serving them, one should attain happiness. '
Behaviorists were interested only in observable phenomena. A strict Behaviorist would not describe a person as happy. because happiness is a state of mind and mind is not observable. Instead, a Behaviorist might describe the person's smile or laugh, noting the observable response to a stimulus.
On this matter he maintained that man's happiness was never included in the plan of Creation and consequently neither does it feature as one of the aims of psychoanalytic treatment. Avoiding conflict is not the aim of therapy. Rather, the analytic approach underlines the importance of keeping conflict alive, even of re-igniting it, if it has been replaced with a defensive acquiescence or resignation to the status quo
Whether happiness be or be not the end to which morality should be referred - that it should be referred to an end of some sort, and not left in the dominion of vague feeling or inexplicable internal conviction, that it be made a matter of reason and calculation, and not merely of sentiment, is essential to the very idea of moral philosophy
Find an image that condenses a crucial aspect of the traumatic experience. This representation can make the overwhelming aspects of the trauma more manageable by putting it in concrete, symbolic form. Furthermore, this approach can be used to facilitate restructuring of the experience by joining previously disparate images, for example, linking the pain associated with the death of a friend in combat with the happiness experienced during some earlier shared time. This allows patients to alter the pain of the loss by attending to positive aspects of the lost relationship that remain in memory.
- welfare based accounts, that is, accounts based on (unchosen) constraints of the personal potential for happiness, or of subjective capabilities for pursuing individual life plans. These constraints could be delineated in two ways first, in terms of impediments of personal choices second, in terms of a failure to meet some normative criteria, based on a social consensus about the necessities of individual welfare. According to this latter kind of reasoning, the concept of personal welfare and of disease-like deviations from it is not a matter to be decided by any naturalistic or subjective-individualistic criteria, but by social conventions or, as some would have it, by social construction alone. of health that keep physical and mental capabilities below a certain level. It could also be extended to include even unchosen constraints on physical or mental potential for happiness. This widening of the scope of treatment relies on tacit normative assumptions. Whatever reasons could be...
The blood glucose goals of the American Diabetes Association (9,10) are shown in Table 2. The listed HbA,c of less than 7 is accepted around the world based on the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) performed in type 1 diabetes (see Table 3), which showed an acceptable balance of protection against microvascular complications versus risk of severe hypoglycemia with this HbAlc level (1). Equally important is to prevent rigidity of lifestyle by providing flexibility for exercise, sports, diet, work, travel, or whatever the patient wants for a happy life.
Would also be rather irritating to people around them. But there is some evidence that happy, humorous people are less likely to get coronary heart disease than miserable, humorless people who maybe also very stressed. People with a sunny, happy disposition may have a lower cardiovascular risk than discontented people they are more fun to be with and their good humor may rub off on the people they are with. A smile can be infectious to other people. It is very difficult to prove that happiness, laughter, and fun protect people from heart disease, but it is highly unlikely that they are dangerous.
The laughter is usually not associated with a feeling of happiness or mirth. Seizures are very brief. The typical syndrome associated with hypothalamic hamartomas includes precocious puberty, endocrine abnormalities (114), and developmental delay. Removal of the hamartoma can render patients seizure free (115), but other alternative approaches using radiosurgery have recently been successful in eliminating seizures (116). Intracranial EEG studies have shown that epileptiform activity originates in the area of the hamartoma (117). Involvement of frontotemporal cortex has been suggested in the generation of ictal laughter (118,119). It was suggested that
Another issue that will have its part in the discussion is intention. With every new step in the development of technologies, there will be a potential for abuse. To many, enhancement by connecting electronic devices to the human body and brain will appear, at least prima facie, morally suspect. Others have argued that these technologies offer an opportunity to make life even more worth living by getting smarter, being happier, living longer -provided that society would respond democratically to the implicit social challenges (Hughes 2004).
An acute psychotic disorder in which hallucinations, delusions or perceptual disturbances are obvious but markedly variable, changing from day to day or even from hour to hour. Emotional turmoil with intense transient feelings of happiness or ecstasy, or anxiety and irritability, is also frequently present. The polymorphism and instability are characteristic for the overall clinical picture and the psychotic features do not justify a diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20.-). These disorders often have an abrupt onset, developing rapidly within a few days, and they frequently show a rapid resolution of symptoms with no recurrence. If the symptoms persist the diagnosis should be changed to persistent delusional disorder (F22.-).
In the early phases in particular, when language had yet to develop to its present level, the correct interpretation of nonverbal facial communication, such as happiness, sadness, aggression, compliance, pain, and sexual interest, provided a critical survival role in the tight social groups in which Homo lived. Another important growth area of the brain in hominid evolution is the neocortex, the front part of the brain where the higher mental functions such as thinking and planning take place, and where self-consciousness presumably resides.
Normal behavioral responses to danger, such as freezing or running away. The rat with a damaged amygdala also will not demonstrate the accompanying physiological reactions to danger, such as increased heart rate or blood pressure. Research with humans has highlighted the amygdala's critical role in the learning of emotional associations and the recognition of emotional expressions in other individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that the amygdala shows activation to fearful stimuli. In humans, the brain is also involved in the control of emotional facial expressions. Smiles that occur spontaneously as a result of genuine happiness are involuntary. The extrapyramidal motor system, which depends on subcortical areas, governs involuntary smiles and fear reactions.
The lips are very important for social interaction. A wide spectrum of emotions is represented by the lips, from happiness to sadness and sorrow. It also plays an important role in the expression of sensuality and sexuality. When the sphincter mechanism is intact normal lip function promotes a competent oral seal for liquids and solids, especially the lower lip. The free movable nature of the vermillion and cutaneous skin makes this area quite suitable for distortion. The use of
Modern life entails sizable variations in daily diet, activity, and work demands. For most patients, using the same insulin doses day in and day out is not compatible with stable glycemic control. Further, an important goal of modern insulin therapy is to eliminate barriers to jobs, hobbies, sports, travel, or whatever the patient wants for a happy life. Thus, once the insulin regimen is in place, dose adjustments are typically built in to promote stable glycemia while allowing patients to live the kind of life they want.
Any emotion can be expressed during the course of an epileptic seizure (18.104.22.168). Irritability, anxiety, and anger can occur from amygdalar seizures or stimulation (46,48). Fear is commonly a component of hippocam-pal seizures (90). It is often without content and thus takes on the perception of unreality (91). An affectless expression of fear can occur with cingulate seizures, as can a feeling of happiness (64,71). Auras may involve the sudden onset of overwhelming fear without dependence on the patient's mood or thoughts (92), and ictal episodes of isolated fear may be confused with psychiatric illnesses of paranoia or panic disorder.
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