Personal Guidebook to Grief Recovery
Consider once again the Martian Super-Scientist. . . . The Martian would not know what colors look like what musical tones sound like what joy, grief, elation or depression, etc., etc. feel like. . . . Now the question arises Is there something about human beings that the Martian does not (and never could) know
Darwin, in his monograph The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1965), described in great detail, in a variety of animals including man, the species-specific bodily and motoric actions and especially facial expressions that communicate a defined emotion, such as anger, grief, or fear. He provided photographs of faces that illustrated these typical emotions and even described his observations of his own baby's smiles and pouts. The use of the facial musculature to display and communicate specific feelings appears to be an early acquisition in both the development of the individual and the evolution of the species. You will recall that emotional attunement between mother and infant is achieved through a gazing dialogue in which the face, especially the eyes, is salient.
Attracting magnetic forces on macroscopic objects, especially at the body surface or near to the pointed poles of permanent magnets, can be very strong. This had already been demonstrated in 600 bc through the extraction of bulk iron pieces from the eye (see Section 1.1.3). Since then, most applications of magnetic forces have dealt with macroscopic parts such as catheters and other devices as are used in stereotactic neurosurgery (see Section 1.1.5). Recently, however, an increasing number of investigations have been carried out with very small objects such as superparamagnetic particles. These objects are of particular interest due to their ability to act as carriers for drug targeting (see Section 4.8). In order to mathematically model particle deposition in deeper target regions, a theoretical study was recently performed which considered not only the influence of Stokes drag and magnetic forces on the particles, but also the interactions and collisions between moving red blood...
However, the psychoanalytic domination of traumatology was ended in 1944 when Eric Lindemann wrote his classic paper on the symptomatology and management of acute grief (Lindemann, 1944 94 ). He described the now-familiar symptoms of PTSD in his study of the aftermath of the Coconut Grove Night Club fire, in which hundreds of people were killed or badly wounded. He saw people who were agitated, restless, pacing, experiencing a sense of unreality, somatic discomfort, and intrusive recollections of the fire. He classified them into three groups (a) people who had extreme symptoms hyperactive, restless, unable to sleep, some became psychotic (b) people who were acutely agitated and went through a very difficult period of adjustment but then recovered (c) those who acted as through nothing had happened. An example of this last group is a man whose wife had been killed and the next day he went to work and said 'well she would want me to go on with things and I should just go on'. Lindemann...
Significant weight loss occurring as an isolated symptom is rarely associated with serious organic disease. However, a careful history may elicit other symptoms and alert the clinician to the underlying cause. While some patients can accurately quantify their weight loss, many cannot. The patient may assess the rate and severity of weight loss from ill-fitting clothes. Whenever possible such subjective assessment should be confirmed objectively. Review of previously documented weights from case records may avoid needless investigation in patients who mistakenly believe they are losing weight. The significance of weight loss relates to its duration and extent together with the presence or absence of anorexia (loss of appetite) or deliberate reduction in food intake. Weight loss of less than 3 kg in the previous 6 months is rarely of significance. Weight loss accompanied by severe anorexia or other alimentary symptoms may not necessarily be due to intraabdominal disease such features...
It is the realm of secondary emotions that creates the most controversy between those with opposing views about the extent of animal emotions. Expressions of love, grief, or jealousy maybe commonplace among humans, but it is debatable whether they can be inferred in animals. Grief is commonly reported during field observations of various animals. The behaviors of elephants, chimpanzees, sea lions, and geese suggesting grief in response to the loss of a mate or offspring have been well documented. The dolphin who carries a dead baby around for several days is inferred to be experiencing both grief and love. Love has been attributed to animals such as swans or geese because of lifelong bonds that are established with a mate. Critics of these interpretations point out that animals may behave as if they are grieving or in love, yet there is no way of knowing whether this is an accurate reflection of their inner states. A central issue about the capacity of animals to experience a wide...
Treatment employing hypnosis is now seen as involving not merely abreaction of traumatic memories, but working through them by assisting with the management of uncomfortable affect, enhancing the patient's control over them, and enabling him to cognitively restructure their meaning (Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978 Spiegel, 1981, 1992, 1997). Catharsis is a beginning, but it is not an end in itself, and can lead to retraumatization if the catharsis is not accompanied by support in managing affective response, control over the accessing of memories, and working them through. A grief work model (Lindemann 1944 94 ) is useful. Observations of normal grief after trauma have led to a recognition that a certain amount of emotional discomfort and physical restlessness and hyperarousal is a natural, and indeed necessary, part of acknowledging, bearing, and putting into perspective traumatic memories (Spiegel, 1986 Spiegel & Cardena, 1990). This is often facilitated by using a hypnotic imaging...
It is possible that some living things in our environment may have co-opted our IgE system for their own protection. Our extremely strong reaction to bee stings and to certain plant products may reflect the fact that they have evolved toxins that are very efficient in inducing an aggressive (and highly unpleasant) IgE response in us. That would certainly encourage us to keep a close eye on what's around us and avoid those organisms causing such grief
In approaching this material I had two things in mind Sara had indeed come into therapy to explore her grief about the loss of her mother on whom she had been very dependent. The session reported here took place a few months before the second anniversary of her mother's death. It felt important, therefore, to respond to her comments both as related to her mother's actual loss as well as to consider the possible latent communication. In this respect, I was mindful of the forthcoming break in the therapy and of Sara's dependency on me. We had explored, on a few previous occasions, her fear that I would not be there for her at the time of her session and how she struggled to allow herself to rely on my being there for her. She was characteristically quick to dismiss her dependency on me while at the same time reassuring me that she valued my input a great deal.
The use of hypnotherapy as an adjunct to supportive counselling is often very effective in helping children and families with the common experience of separation anxiety. These include sadness and other symptoms associated with moving away from old friends, re-entering school after a long recess holiday, or helping children with the natural but difficult process of grief and bereavement following the death of a grandparent, other relative or friend, or pet. The use of positive imagery of happy memories, re-experienced by way of age regression, may provide a respite from feelings of loneliness, as well as a bridge to learning about and accepting death (Kohen & Olness, 1996).
The recognition of the looks of pain, fear, anxiety, anger or grief does not require medical training but should alert the clinician to explore the underlying emotional issues. Some patients may manage to conceal their apprehension or cloak their feelings in an air of feigned cheerfulness. The doctor should avoid adopting, or being misled by, such an apparently lightheaded attitude. The experienced clinician behaves naturally and thereby reduces risks of misunderstanding.
But he buried what grief he had in work. Sommerfeld was teaching him the mathematics he needed to succeed with Schrodinger's wave equation, and he began applying this method successfully to problems. A great breakthrough came when he used wave mechanics to explain some of the basic properties, including the size, of large atoms with many electrons. This important step forward won him Sommerfeld's admiration and publication in the prestigious British journal Proceedings of the Royal Society. He next figured out how to use the new physics to predict the sizes of atoms as they existed in crystals.
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