Questions for Review

1. How do the lower epidermis and upper epidermis of a leaf differ?

2. What modifications of leaves enable a plant to live in arid conditions?

3. Describe several types of leaf arrangement.

4. Distinguish between pinnate and palmate venation.

5. Distinguish between simple and compound leaves.

6. Describe the structure of guard cells and relate what factors are involved in their opening and closing.

7. What is mesophyll, and of what kind of cells is it composed?

8. What causes the leaves of angiosperms to be shed in the autumn?

9. Define the term transpiration. Is it of any value to a plant?

10. Define the terms hydrophyte and xerophyte.

11. Define the term phyllotaxy.

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