Varicellazoster Virus

Like the herpes simplex viruses, varicella-zoster virus VZV is an enveloped, dou-ble-standed, DNA virus of the herpesvirus family. VZV causes two distinct clinical syndromes. Primary exposure to VZV results in varicella chickenpox , a usually benign, highly contagious infection of children. Reactivation of latent VZV results in herpes zoster shingles , an illness most commonly seen in adults over the age of 45 yr. VZV is spread from person to person by direct contact, as an aerosol from skin...

Human Papilloma Virus

Human papilloma virus HPV infections have two important clinical manifestations external genital warts EGWs and squamous intraepithelial lesions 30 . A discussion of these neoplasms is beyond the scope of this chapter but screening and treatment issues can be found elsewhere 2 . The majority of newly acquired HPV infections are asymptomatic. EGWs are diagnosed when visible warts occur in the genital area they can be discrete or coalesce into confluent plaques 30 . The acetowhite test has not...

Subacute Or Chronic Meningitis

Subacute or chronic meningitis is characterized by a gradual onset, often without any predisposing factor. These syndromes run their course over weeks, months or years. The clinical signs include headache, fever, stiff neck, and altered consciousness. Lower cranial nerve palsies may accompany basilar meningitis. Of the treatable conditions, crytococcosis and syphilis can be easily diagnosed on the basis of serology and antigen detection. Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi with nervous system...

Herpes Simplex Viruses

Herpes simplex viruses HSV are enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses in the herpesvirus family. HSV I and II have the capacity to invade and replicate in the central nervous system, establish latent infection, and recur in the presence of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Latent stages of HSV I and II occur as a result of viral entry into sensory nerve endings following primary infection. The virus is then transported to the nuclei of sensory ganglia where, in the majority of patients, it...