Latest Treatment of Gout
The only absolute method of distinction is the characterization of crystals in synovial fluid. However, the simultaneous existence of both gout (monosodium urate crystals) and pseudogout (CPPD) can occur. 3. Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease may produce synovitis or tendinitis. Crystals may be seen with electron microscopy but not with routine polarizing microscopy. Therefore, the diagnosis must be made clinically. This disorder tends to develop in patients with calcifications of the shoulder area and patients on hemodialysis. In young, premenopausal women, goutlike inflammation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, or pseudopodagra, may be caused by CPPD crystals.
Purine nucleotides are degraded by a pathway in which they lose their phosphate through the action of 5'-nucleotidase (Fig. 22-45). Adenylate yields adenosine, which is deaminated to inosine by adenosine deami-nase, and inosine is hydrolyzed to hypoxanthine (its purine base) and d-ribose. Hypoxanthine is oxidized successively to xanthine and then uric acid by xanthine oxidase, a flavoenzyme with an atom of molybdenum and four iron-sulfur centers in its prosthetic group. Molecular oxygen is the electron acceptor in this complex reaction.
Long thought, erroneously, to be due to high living, gout is a disease of the joints caused by an elevated concentration of uric acid in the blood and tissues. The joints become inflamed, painful, and arthritic, owing to the abnormal deposition of sodium urate crystals. The kidneys are also affected, as excess uric acid is deposited in the kidney tubules. Gout occurs predominantly in males. Its precise cause is not known, but it often involves an underexcretion of urate. A genetic deficiency of one or another enzyme of purine metabolism may also be a factor in some cases.
Generally, uric acid renal stones are likely to form in the following circumstances (1) increased excretion of uric acid in the urine, (2) persistently concentrated urine, (3) persistently low urinary pH. The last two conditions are often present in IBD patients in fact, chronic diarrhoea secondary to UC or to an ileosto-my generates a loss of water, sodium and bicarbonate salt, which are able to concentrate the urine and lower its pH. Clarke et al. 16 noticed that people with ileosto-my produced about 300 ml less urine in a day than the control population moreover the mean urinary pH was 5.05. At these levels, the solubility of uric acid (which has a pKa of 5.7) is almost 12 times lower 10 , and this predisposes to crystallization and formation of uric stones, even in the absence of hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria 17 . Other circumstances like urinary tract infection, chronic ureteral obstruction, high urinary calcium and oxalate concentration, steroid use (because they increase...
The laboratory studies outlined in this chapter are helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases. They should be interpreted in the context of a careful history and physical examination. This chapter discusses erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, auto-antibodies, complement, and other tests helpful in the serologic evaluation of rheumatic diseases. Synovial fluid analysis is discussed in Chapter , and uric acid metabolism in Chapter
Monarticular presentation of a polyarticular disease. Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) characteristically evolves into a symmetric polyarthritis, some patients present, at the onset of the disorder, with a monarticular synovitis. Attacks of palindromic rheumatism resemble gout. These are intense inflammatory episodes that involve a single joint and periarticular tissues. They last days at a time, with a return to normal between episodes. Later, the more typical, polyarticular pattern of RA emerges (see Chap.teL.28).
Gout can present as polyarticular disease in the setting of long-established tophi. In men, there generally will be a history of previous, typical, acute oligoarticular attacks however, in postmenopausal women on thiazides, there is a well-described presentation of diffuse tophaceous, polyarticular disease without previous episodic disease. Virtually every joint can be involved, and significant fever and leukocytosis can be present. Diagnostic clues include palpable tophi in the olecranon bursa or along the pinna of the ear and characteristic erosions on radiographs of the hands or feet. Characteristic negatively birefringent crystals in the synovial fluid white blood cells and polyarticular or tophaceous disease make a septic process much less likely, but gout and joint sepsis can coexist. Similarly, gout and pseudogout crystals can be found in the same inflamed joint (see ,Ch.apte.r 37).
Pyrazinamide is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug. The drug is also contraindicated in patients with acute gout (a metabolic disorder resulting in increased levels of uric acid) and in patients with severe hepatic damage. The drug is used with caution during lactation, in patients with hepatic and renal impairment, and during pregnancy (Category C). Pyrazinamide is used cautiously in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, who may require longer treatment, and in patients with diabetes mellitus, in whom management is more difficult. Pyrazinamide decreases the effects of allopurinol, colchicines, and probenecid.
Blood work is obtained at baseline, including assessment of renal and hepatic function, complete blood count, and level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Elevated LDH levels have prognostic impact, portending a worse prognosis (45). Uric acid levels may be elevated, owing to spontaneous tumor cell lysis. Hypercalcemia may also occur.
Results of blood testing to evaluate the white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level may support a diagnosis of infection or RA. Measurements of rheumatoid factor and uric acid levels and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing may be helpful in suspected cases of inflammatory arthropathies. B. Joint aspiration in the presence of an effusion with culture, cell counts, and analysis of glucose, protein, and crystals should be performed to rule out a septic joint, RA, or a crystal-induced arthropathy such as gout or pseudogout.
Crystalline disease (see sectionJJI.B ). As acute gouty attacks become more frequent, the joints may no longer return to normal. Patients begin to experience constant symptoms, including morning stiffness. Radiographs of patients with untreated chronic tophaceous gout can sometimes demonstrate joint changes similar to those of RA such abnormalities may also be seen with the symmetric, polyarticular variant of CPPD deposition disease.
Periodic evaluation is an important part of therapy for musculoskeletal disorders. With some disorders such as acute gout, the patient can be expected to respond to therapy in hours. Therefore, it is important for the nurse to inspect the joints involved every 1 to 2 hours to identify immediately a response or nonresponse to therapy. At this time, the nurse questions the patient regarding the relief of pain, as well as adverse drug reactions. In other disorders, response is gradual and may take days, weeks, and even months of treatment. Depending on the drug administered and the disorder being treated, the evaluation of therapy may be daily or weekly. These recorded evaluations help the primary health care provider plan current and future therapy, including dosage changes, changes in the drug administered, and institution of physical therapy.
Acute psoriatic monarthritis can resemble but should be differentiated from gout by the absence of monosodium urate crystals in the synovial fluid. Hyperuricemia may occur in up to 20 of patients with skin psoriasis but is uncommon during acute flares of PA. In contrast to monarticular PA, acute gouty arthritis usually resolves completely in 1 to 2 weeks, even if untreated.
In primary gout, hyperuricemia results from a disorder of purine metabolism or from abnormal excretion of uric acid. Most patients with primary gout fall into an idiopathic category because no precise genetic or metabolic defect can be identified. In approximately 1 of the primary gout group, specific enzyme defects have been found. Deficiency of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and increased activity of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase are the best-characterized forms. B. Secondary gout constitutes about 10 of all gout cases. It can result from a variety of disorders that cause hyperuricemia as a result of overproduction or impaired excretion of uric acid (Ta,ble. .3Z.-.1).
The intense articular inflammation associated with the presence of intracellular monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid is usually the first and most characteristic manifestation of an acute gouty arthritis. Classically, acute gout presents as a monarthritis (approximately 70 of cases) however, a polyarticular arthritis occurs in a significant percentage of patients. The onset of pain is sudden within hours it may become excruciating to the point that the weight of bed sheets is intolerable. Weight bearing, even wearing footwear, may become impossible. The intense inflammation and erythema over the affected joint resemble tenosynovitis or cellulitis. Some patients also experience chills and fever with the acute onset. 2. Acute gouty arthritis occurs most commonly in men (95 of cases), with the initial attack occurring in the fourth or fifth decade. Gouty arthritis rarely develops in women before the onset of menopause. 3. Important predisposing factors of an acute gouty attack...
There are no known specific biochemical abnormalities of pseudogout itself. The chemical abnormalities noted in other diseases associated with the development of pseudogout may, however, be present. These values include low serum levels of magnesium and phosphate in addition to elevated levels of calcium, ferritin, and uric acid. Low thyroxine levels are not any longer believed to be related to pseudogout.
Other causes of monarthritis including osteoarthritis and neuropathic arthropathy are reviewed in Chapter9
Metabolic disorders associated with syndromes of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition include hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis, ochronosis, gout, hypomagnesemia, Wilson's disease, and hypophosphatasia. Other associations include aging, osteoarthritis, neuropathic joints, trauma, and septic arthritis.
If not reused for the synthesis of new amino acids or other nitrogenous products, amino groups are channeled into a single excretory end product (Fig. 18-10). Most aquatic species, such as the bony fishes, are ammonotelic, excreting amino nitrogen as ammonia. The toxic ammonia is simply diluted in the surrounding water. Terrestrial animals require pathways for nitrogen excretion that minimize toxicity and water loss. Most terrestrial animals are ureotelic, excreting amino nitrogen in the form of urea birds and reptiles are uricotelic, excreting amino nitrogen as uric acid. (The pathway of uric acid synthesis is described in Fig. 22-45.) Plants recycle virtually all amino groups, and nitrogen excretion occurs only under very unusual circumstances.
Human obesity is characterized by a wide variation in the distribution of excess body fat, and the distribution of fat affects the risks associated with obesity as well as the kinds of comorbidities that result. In the 1920s the idea emerged, under Kret-schmer's influence (1), that the pychnic type of body build was associated with abdominal obesity, gout, apoplexia and impaired glucose tolerance. Vague extended these observations further and labelled obesity types android (male-type) and gynoid (female-type), and noted that, although gender-specific in general, women might have android obesity and vice versa (2). Nevertheless, the android type of obesity carries a greater risk for disease in both men and women.
Gout affects primarily the first MTP joint in addition to other joints of the foot and lower extremity. Tophaceous deposits over the small joints of the hand may be confused with osteophytes. The diagnosis of gout is confirmed by the identification of urate crystals in the joint fluid (see Chapter .).
There are a variety of antioxidants in herbs and plants that, when ingested, could provide important protection from strong oxidants, e.g., peroxynitrite and hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide. It is important to supplement our major antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, uric acid, and glutathione in the reduced state. These substances protect us against attack by oxidants, which can damage our important macromolecules including DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. Therefore, new nontoxic dietary antioxidants were explored that could supplement the usual fare of antioxdants.
The potassium-sparing diuretics are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drugs, serious electrolyte imbalances, significant renal impairment, or anuria, and those receiving another potassium-sparing diuretic. The potassium-sparing diuretics are contraindi-cated in patients with hyperkalemia and are not recommended for children. The potassium-sparing diuretics are used cautiously in patients with renal or kidney impairment. The diuretics are Pregnancy Category B (amiloride, triamterene) and D (spironolactone) drugs and must be used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. The potassium-sparing diuretics are used cautiously in patients with liver disease, diabetes, or gout.
Concurrent use of the thiazides with allopurinol may increase the incidence of hypersensitivity to allopurinol. The effects of anesthetics may be increased by thiazide administration. The effects of anticoagulants may be diminished when they are administered with a thiazide diuretic. Because thi-azide diuretics may raise blood uric acid levels, dosage adjustments of antigout drugs may be necessary. Thiazide diuretics may prolong antineoplastic-induced leukopenia. Hyperglycemia may occur when the thiazides area administered with the antidiabetic drugs. Synergistic effects may occur when the thi-azide diuretics are administered concurrently with the loop diuretics, causing profound diuresis and serious electrolyte abnormalities. There is an increased risk of glycoside toxicity if the patient experiences hypokalemia while taking the thiazide diuretics.
Ammonia is a dangerous metabolite for terrestrial animals that have limited access to water. In mammals, ammonia is lethal when it reaches a concentration of only 5 mg 100 ml of blood. Therefore, terrestrial (and some aquatic) animals convert ammonia into either urea or uric acid. Ureotelic animals, such as mammals, amphibians, and cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays), excrete urea as their principal nitrogenous waste product.
A uricosuric agent that inhibits renal tubular resorption of organic acids, including uric acid. Probenecid is not effective with a creatinine clearance of less than 40 mL min. Hyperuricemia associated with refractory or recurrent gouty arthritis. Metabolism The dosage is 250 mg twice daily for 1 week, then 500 mg twice daily. Maintenance colchicine should be given during the first 3 months of probenecid therapy and then can be stopped if the patient is asymptomatic. Probenecid is not useful in acute attacks of gout.
Generally, increasing length of the loop of Henle in the nephron is associated with increased concentrating ability of the kidney in mammals. Although some of their nephrons contain loops of Henle, birds cannot match the mammals' concentrating ability. The maximum urine-to-plasma concentration ratio in birds is only a little more than five. The reason for this is that mammals excrete osmotically active urea, whereas birds excrete precipitates of uric acid and uric acid salts that do not contribute to osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressure of birds' urine primarily comes from sodium chloride. Birds also allow their plasma to become twice as concentrated as that of mammals during dehydration.
Allopurinol, an analog of the purine hypoxanthine, and urine concentrations of uric acid are lowered. Allopurinol also acts by a feedback mechanism to mL min. Refractory recurrent gouty arthritis, tophaceous gout, nephrolithiasis, urate nephropathy. Metabolism For mild disease, 200 to 300 mg daily is usually adequate, but the dosage should be individualized to achieve the desired serum urate level. It is advisable to start with 100 mg d and gradually build toward full dosage to lessen the probability of acute gout attacks that may be precipitated by sudden lowering of the serum uric acid. Allopurinol is counterproductive and is to be avoided in acute attacks of gout. For severe tophaceous gout, 400 to 600 mg daily can be used. The maximum single dose should be 300 mg. Total daily doses in excess of 600 mg are associated with increased toxicity. It is advisable to prescribe colchicine (0.6 mg PO daily or twice daily) during the first 3 months of therapy as prophylaxis against acute...
Treatment of Gout Allopurinol (see Fig. 22-47), an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is used to treat chronic gout. Explain the biochemical basis for this treatment. Patients treated with allopurinol sometimes develop xanthine stones in the kidneys, although the incidence of kidney damage is much lower than in untreated gout. Explain this observation in the light of the following solubilities in urine uric acid, 0.15 g L xanthine, 0.05 g L and hypox-anthine, 1.4 g L.
Process is recycled and used in a variety of biosynthetic pathways the excess is either excreted directly or converted to urea or uric acid for excretion, depending on the organism (Fig. 18-2b). Excess ammonia generated in other (extrahepatic) tissues travels to the liver (in the form of amino groups, as described below) for conversion to the excretory form.
The cells of the Malpighian tubules actively transport uric acid, potassium ions, and sodium ions from the tissue fluid into the tubules. As these solutes are secreted into the tubules, water follows because of the difference in osmolarity. The walls of the Malpighian tubules have muscle cells that contract to help move the contents of the tubules toward the hindgut. The tubule fluid changes in composition while it is in the hindgut. The contents of the hindgut are more acidic than the tubule fluid as a result, uric acid becomes less soluble and precipitates out of solution as it approaches and enters the rectum. The epithelial cells of the hindgut and rectum actively transport sodium and potassium ions from the gut contents back into the tissue fluid. Because the uric acid molecules have precipitated out of solution, water is free to follow the resorbed salts back into the tissue fluid through osmosis. Remaining in the rectum are crystals of uric acid mixed with undigested food this...
The mechanisms by which water is retained by desert animals are even more elaborate. Reptiles and birds excrete metabolic wastes in the form of uric acid, an insoluble white compound, wasting very little water in the process. Other animals retain water by burrowing into moist soil during the dry daylight hours. Some predatory and scavenging animals can obtain their entire water needs from the food they eat. Most mammals, however, need access to a good supply of fresh water at least every few days, if not daily, due to the considerable water loss from excretion of urea, a soluble compound.
Uric acid precipitates in rectum and is secreted. Uric acid precipitates in rectum and is secreted. Semisolid wastes (including uric acid) Uric acid, Na+, and K+ are transported into the Malpighian tubules H2O follows. Semisolid wastes (including uric acid) Uric acid, Na+, and K+ are transported into the Malpighian tubules H2O follows. reptiles. Reptiles occupy habitats ranging from aquatic to extremely hot and dry. Three major adaptations have freed the reptiles from maintaining the close association with water that is necessary for most amphibians. First, reptiles do not need fresh water to reproduce, because they employ internal fertilization and lay eggs with shells that retard evaporative water loss. Second, they have scaly, dry skin that retards evaporative water loss. Third, they excrete nitrogenous wastes as uric acid solids, losing little water in the process. birds. Birds have the same adaptations for water conservation that reptiles have internal fertilization, shelled...
Hyperuricemia associated with refractory or recurrent gouty arthritis. Metabolism Start with 50 to 100 mg twice daily with meals, and increase gradually during several weeks to a maintenance dosage usually of 300 to 400 mg d in three to four divided doses. Maximum recommended daily dose is 800 mg. Maintenance colchicine should be given for the first 3 months of therapy to prevent precipitation of an acute attack of gouty arthritis.
Calculi are primarily composed of calcium oxalate or uric acid. In general, calcium oxalate stones are more frequent in patients who have extensive ileal disease or an ileal resection but who also have a functioning colon 14,15 , while uric acid calculi are typical of patients with chronic diarrhoea due to extensive colitis or ileostomy diversion. Because of their different pathogeneses they will be discussed separately.
It has become evident that cells dying by nonapoptotoc pathways (principally Necrosis) release substances that elicit host responses. Among these are the nuclear protein HMGB1, the S100 family of molecules, purinergic metabolites ATP, AMP adenosine and uric acid and heat shock proteins. Upon their release from the cytosol of necrotic cells they activate respective receptors on immune cells and result in significant immune responses 42 . S100 family members, secreted by macrophages at sites of inflammation are strongly enriched in a variety of tumors. They activate endothelial cells and phagocytes and serve as chemoattractants for tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Purine metabolites, such as nucleosides and nucle-otides interact respectively with specialized P1 and P2 receptors of many immune effector cells. At low concentrations, these molecules enhance recruitment, maturation and emigration of antigen presenting cells via P1 receptors on immature DCs. However, on mature DCs, they are...
Tenderness over the MTP joint of the hallux may be seen in gout and degenerative arthrosis. 4. Swelling, especially when associated with pain and erythema, is consistent with musculoskeletal infection, or it may be seen in severe flares of inflammatory disease such as RA or gout.
The devastating effects of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome illustrate the importance of the salvage pathways. Hy-poxanthine and guanine arise constantly from the breakdown of nucleic acids. In the absence of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, PRPP levels rise and purines are overproduced by the de novo pathway, resulting in high levels of uric acid production and goutlike damage to tissue (see below). The brain is especially dependent on the salvage pathways, and this may account for the central nervous system damage in children with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. This syndrome is another target of early trials in gene therapy (see Box 9-2).
The determination of uric acid by means of reduction of phosphotungstic acid in alkaline medium is affected by other reducing substances, especially ascorbic acid and catechol derivatives.194 The contribution of these reducing substances is relatively greater in methods that substitute carbonate or silicate for cyanide.33,106 Some analytic procedures have been based on the use of enzymes to increase the specificity of the reaction. Typical examples are the use of uricase to determine uric acid by ultraviolet spectrophotometry urease to catalyze hydrolysis of urea and glucose oxidase in the determination of glucose. Reluctance to adopt these methods stems in part from the possibility of inhibition of enzymes by drugs or serum proteins. Competition between naturally occurring substrates may also occur. The application of glucose oxidase methods to serum has been regarded as unacceptable on the basis of such inhibition,29 55 147 although others have reported negligible inhibition with...
In addition, animals survive by metabolizing foodstuffs to provide the energy for movement. One of the major metabolic processes is the breakdown of protein to produce energy for the synthesis of other proteins and the rebuilding of body structures. In the breakdown of protein, nitrogen is freed from the organic molecule and must be excreted. One of the resultant nitrogen products is ammonia, which is toxic. The ammonia is converted into a less toxic material, urea (or uric acid, in some animals), before it is excreted by the kidney. In addition, the metabolism of the body usually results in the production of acids, particularly if fat is metabolized. The body functions well only within a narrow range of acidity, so unless the excess acid is removed, serious problems quickly arise. The kidney serves the function of maintaining the pH at a constant value.
Whatever the nature of calculi, the mainstay of prevention is maintaining a good hydration and minimising diarrhoea or ostomy output in order to have a urine volume of 1 500-2 000 ml day. Patients at risk should regularly have urinary measurements of uric acid, oxalate, calcium, citrate, phosphate and pH, to keep them in the proper range. Allopurinol 300 mg day (if stone contains uric acid)
Uric acid reduction Leukocyte reduction Indicated for progressive renal failure with potassium 6 mEq L, phosphate 10 mg dL, oliguria, anuria, and volume overload unresponsive to the above measures Electrolytes calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, BUN, creatinine In patients with high tumor burden especially with stage III and stage IV Burkitt or Burkitt-like, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell leukemia or lymphoma, uric acid nephropathy may commence prior to initiating therapy. Extremely rapid cell proliferation is accompanied by significant cell death and release of intracellular ions, and may result in the following metabolic complications before starting chemotherapy These complications are observed in the above-mentioned conditions because these tumors have high growth fractions and they are exquisitely sensitive to chemotherapy. As a consequence there is rapid release of intracellular metabolites (such as phosphorus, potassium, and uric acid) in quantities that exceed the...
Humans are ureotelic, yet we also excrete uric acid and ammonia. The uric acid in human urine comes largely from the metabolism of nucleic acids and caffeine. In the condition known as gout, uric acid levels in the tissue fluid increase, and uric acid precipitates out of solution in the joints and elsewhere, causing swelling and pain. The excretion of ammonia is an important mechanism for regulating the pH of the tissue fluid. In some species, different developmental stages live in different habitats and have different forms of nitrogen excretion. The tadpoles of frogs and toads, for example, excrete ammonia across their gill membranes, but when they develop into adult frogs or toads, they generally excrete urea. Some adult frogs and toads that live in arid habitats excrete uric acid. These examples show the considerable evolutionary flexibility in the excretion of nitrogenous wastes.
Some risk factors, such as blood lipids, impaired glucose tolerance, uric acid, and fibrinogen, have smaller risk ratios in advanced age, but this lower relative risk is offset by a high absolute risk. In fact, most of the major risk factors remain relevant in the elderly. Obesity or weight gain promotes or aggravates all the atherogenic risk factors, and physical indolence worsens some of them and predisposes to cardiovascular events at all ages. Systolic blood pressure and isolated systolic hypertension are major risk factors at all ages in both sexes. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is used by many as a convenient lipid risk factor profile (see also Chap. 53).
Gout, secondary to rapid cell turnover or tumor lysis, is seen mainly in leukemias and lymphomas. Institution of allopurinol helps prevent this complication. The dosage of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine must be reduced if the patient receives concomitant allopurinol therapy. Tendon xanthomas, typically seen in familial hypercholesterolemia, have been reported with near-normal lipid levels in patients with dysproteinemias such as multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). F. Metastatic carcinomatous arthritis associated with solid neoplasms. Metastatic deposits of solid neoplasms in bone, synovium, or periarticular tissue can masquerade as monarthritis or polyarthritis. This is a rare occurrence. The synovial membrane can either react nonspecifically to adjacent malignant deposits or, less commonly, contain tumor itself. In general, the incidence of appendicular bone metastases lessens with increasing distance from the axial skeleton. Phalangeal...
A 45-year-old right hand dominant woman was seen in the office because her right middle finger was stuck in her palm. She reported that her family physician gave her an injection in that finger 6 months ago for her symptoms of clicking and pain over the dorsal aspect of her proximal phalanx of her middle finger. She denies any symptoms of diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or connective tissue disorders.
Achilles tendinitis is a common condition of the Achilles tendon that presents with pain either at or just proximal to its insertion into the calcaneal tuberosity. It is frequently caused by overuse related to athletic participation. Degenerative changes within the tendon itself may be the cause in older persons. Occasionally, inflammatory disorders such as gout or Reiter's syndrome may precipitate such a condition.
Nephrotoxicity is the most frequent and clinically significant adverse effect. At prior high doses for the treatment of RA, more than half of treated patients exhibit a significant elevation in serum creatinine, although fewer than 10 require discontinuation of the drug. New or exacerbation of preexisting hypertension is also frequently observed. Other common side effects include gastrointestinal intolerance, infections, gout, hypertrichosis, hyperesthesias, paresthesias, gingival hyperplasia, abnormal serum liver chemistries, and potential oncogenicity.
Osmoregulation and excretion of nitrogenous wastes are accomplished via one of two kinds of organs the Malphigian tubules, or the nephridial coxal, antennae, or maxillary glands, all of which filter the blood for wastes. Marine forms excrete ammonia, while terrestrial forms conserve water through the excretion of uric acid.
Acute pain after trauma will be most likely associated with fracture or dislocation. Muscle tears of the biceps in middle-aged men can also occur. Acute pain on the medial or lateral sides of the elbow may be associated with sports such as golf or tennis, as the result of an acute muscle tear. Without a history of trauma, inflammation from gout, infection, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other rheumatic conditions should be investigated.
Except for research that seeks simply to characterize the frequency of disease occurrence in a population, epidemiologic studies make comparisons between two or more groups. The goal is to draw inferences about possible causal relations between some attribute that may affect health, generically called exposure, and some health outcome or state, generically called disease. The exposure may be a biological property, such as a genotype or hormone level an individual behavior, such as drug use or diet or a social or environmental characteristic, such as living in a high-crime neighborhood or belonging to a particular ethnic group. Disease also covers many types of health events, including a biochemical or physiologic state, for example, elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol, a clinical disease, for example, gout, or an impairment in daily living, for example, the inability to walk without assistance.
Numerous conditions, including gout, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neoplasm, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, congenital deformity, and neurologic conditions, can all contribute to foot or ankle dysfunction. Similarly, the altered gait pattern related to foot and ankle dysfunction can contribute to other musculoskeletal complaints, such as low back pain and medial knee pain.
If a low uric acid value is expected, an alternate procedure is to dilute the unknown to a final volume of 10 cc. with corresponding reduction in the amount of the reagents used. Special attention should perhaps be called to one small yet essential variation in the process for developing the blue uric acid
Elevated uric acid values occur in about 90 of gout patients. b. Creatinine. Elevated levels may reflect gout-related nephropathy or primary renal disease. 2. Urine studies. Patients with primary gout can be subdivided into over-excreters of uric acid (15 of patients) and normal excreters based on quantitative urinary excretion of urate. On a regular diet, normal persons will excrete 300 to 800 mg of uric acid daily. The patient should be instructed to avoid alcohol or aspirin ingestion and to eat no more than one moderate serving of meat daily during the 3 days preceding the urine collection. Foods with a very high purine content, such as organ meats (liver and kidney) and anchovies, should also be avoided before the collection. A uric acid collection obtained during an acute gout attack is unreliable as a result of fluctuating serum acid levels not usually seen in the basal state. C. The differential diagnosis includes RA, osteoarthritis, and pseudogout. At times, it...
Diseases associated with CPPD include hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, hypomagnesemia, gout, neuropathic arthropathy, and osteoarthritis. The association of CPPD with hypothyroidism is controversial. Diabetes has been shown not to be linked with pseudogout.
Not all freeze-tolerant species make use of haemo-lymph PINs and LPINs to initiate inoculative freezing. In Eurosta solidaginis it appears that crystals of calcium carbonate, uric acid and potassium phosphate may ensure crystallization at relatively high subzero temperatures (Lee and Costanzo 1998). In some species, such as the highly freeze-tolerant Chymomyza costsata, external inoculation by ice crystals at relatively high subzero temperatures ( 2 C) is essential for the development of freeze tolerance, and this is true also of several other species (Duman et al. 1991). In some instances, cooling in the absence of ice results in a depression of the SCP, but complete mortality on freezing. In E. solidaginis it appears that external inoculation via frozen gall tissue is essential for induction of freezing early on in the winter season, whereas endogenous nucleators become more important as the galls they inhabit dry out (Lee and Costanzo 1998).
Also, central obesity is associated with increased PAI-1 levels, increased fibrinogen levels, increased blood viscosity, and hypertension. It is also associated with increased uric acid levels through increased platelet aggregation and adhesion, increased blood viscosity, and propensity to coagulation (11). In a cross-sectional study, central fat mass in elderly women is associated with atherogenic tendencies and peripheral fat mass exhibits an independent dominant antiatherogenic effect (114). Fat cells from people with central adiposity have greater metabolic activity compared to normal cells. This is exemplified by an increase in lipolysis and release of free fatty acids (FFA) that may interfere with insulin clearance and exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia (115). Moreover, plasma insulin concentration inversely correlates with HDL-C and directly correlates with TG concentrations in plasma (116).
Previous studies have established that birds have higher concentrations of antioxidants in their bodies and appear more efficient in dealing with the oxidative stress compared to mammals.3'27 Iqbal et al.12'13 hypothesized that uric acid plays an important role in limiting oxidative stress and subsequent accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), such as Ps in birds. In previous studies, dose rates of allopurinol from 2 to 50 mg kg were used in laboratory rats,28
Most adverse effects are related to symptoms associated with the site of injection, including pain, swelling, effusion, warmth, and redness. Some of these cases are exacerbations of gout or pseudogout. Self-limited allergic reactions have been reported. At present, hyaluronans are approved only for osteoarthritis of the knee. Increases in knee inflammation after administration in the setting of inflammatory arthritides (e.g., RA and gout) have been noted. Because the source of the agent is rooster combs, precaution should be taken in patients with allergies to avian proteins, feathers, and egg products. Strict sterile technique is to be observed, and no injection should be attempted through skin that appears infected. Disinfectants containing quarternary ammonium salts should not be used for skin preparation.
It is important that the patient realize that gout is a chronic disease and that certain life-style modifications, such as maintenance of an ideal weight and moderation of alcohol intake, are important. A purine-restricted diet may be of benefit in some patients, but only small changes in serum uric acid can be attained. Other factors worth emphasizing are ingestion of at least 2 L of fluids daily to help prevent renal stones and avoidance of alcohol and low-dose aspirin, which aggravate hyperuricemia. 2. Drug therapy. The goals of therapy are to prevent renal parenchymal damage and nephrolithiasis and to suppress articular flares. Drug strategy in chronic gout is determined by the pattern of 24-hour urate excretion and the severity of disease. a. Colchicine prophylaxis. Colchicine (0.6 mg daily or twice daily) is effective in diminishing the frequency and severity of spontaneous gout flares and flares induced by initial allopurinol and probenecid therapy....
This resemblance between MyD88-mediated activation of IRF7 and IRF5 is further enforced by the observation that IRAK-1 kinase is important in IRF5 activation (Schoenemeyer et al. 2005). IRF5 can also be phosphorylated and activated upon ectopic expression of TBK1 and IKKe (Cheng et al. 2006). The physiological relevance of these observations remains to be clarified, however, since inflammatory cytokine production (which is controlled by IRF5) is induced normally in TBK1 or IKKe knockout cells (Hemmi et al. 2004 N. Gout-agny and K.A. Fitzgerald, unpublished data). MyD88 also interacts with IRF4, which appears to negatively regulate the IRF5 signaling pathway (Negishi et al.
NSAIDs and corticosteroids are the mainstays in the treatment of acute gout and crystalline arthritides. Colchicine may also be used in the acute setting, but it is more widely used for prophylaxis. Hypo-uricemic agents reduce serum uric acid levels by either inhibiting production or increasing excretion of uric acid and are used primarily in patients with chronic, recurrent gouty arthritis, tophaceous gout, nephrolithiasis, and urate nephropathy.
With the exception of thymol turbidity determination. Before obtaining blood for study of serum lipid or lipid fractions, a 12hr. fast is recommended. In this connection it may be noted that after a standard breakfast a number of common chemistry determinations reveal no significant change in the blood.5 These include urea nitrogen, carbon dioxide, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Glucose, of course, increases greatly postprandially.
Some insect species contain several different types of symbionts in different tissues, including the gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, or gonads. Bacteroids, spiroplasmas, rickettsia, mycoplasmas, or virus-like symbionts are found in dipteran testes, ovaries, pole cells, nurse cells, and gut wall cells. Endocytobiosis in scale insects (Homoptera) is particularly diverse with almost 20 different types of associations described so far. In the leafhopper Euscelidium variegatus, specific bacteria are thought to be essential for normal growth and development, breaking down uric acid in the host cells and synthesizing amino acids and vitamins. Symbionts are involved in normal egg development of E. variegatus embryos artificially lacking symbionts fail to develop normal abdomens. It is hypothesized that some genes from this microorganism have been transferred to the nuclear genome of E. variegatus in a manner parallel to that of mitochondria.
Folin adopted his creatinine method for use with serum in 1914 (7). Colorimetric assays for glucose, urea, nonprotein nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid read with the Duboscq colorimeter were integrated into a system of analytical assays by Folin and Hsien Wu in 1919. This paper is presented here. In 2002 the editors of the Journal of Biological Chemistry selected this paper as a Classic Article in biochemistry (8). Folin's Duboscq procedures were the methods routinely presented in clinical chemistry manuals and textbooks for the next 40 years (9-12). Folin's own textbook of methods, Laboratory Manual of Biological Chemistry, first published in 1916, went through five editions before his death (13).
Figure 35.6 Adjusted risk factor changes ( ) in relation to body weight changes (kg) over 2 years in 842 obese men and women pooled from the surgically treated group and the obese control group of the SOS Intervention study. The percentage change in each risk factor was adjusted for the basal value of that risk factor, initial body weight, sex, age and height. The number of subjects in each weight-changing class is shown at the top of the figure (as No). SBP and DBP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure HDL, serum HDL cholesterol CHOL, serum total cholesterol TG, serum triglycerides INS, serum insulin URIC, serum uric acid GLU, blood glucose. All serum samples collected after overnight fast. From C.D. Sjostrom et al. (14), with permission Figure 35.6 Adjusted risk factor changes ( ) in relation to body weight changes (kg) over 2 years in 842 obese men and women pooled from the surgically treated group and the obese control group of the SOS Intervention study. The percentage change in...
Greater excess of sulfuric acid must not be used, for if this is the case a large part of the uric acid will be lost. A safe and convenient criterion is to test the blood filtrate obtained with Congo red paper. The reaction should be negative or at the most just perceptible. We have employed three different tungstates, and all worked equally well. The product we now use was obtained from the Primos Chemical Company, Primos, Pa.
Traces of cupric ion in distilled water interfere with the determination of oxyhemoglobin, presumably by conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin.63 Free chlorine may also be an unsuspected contaminant in distilled water. As such, it behaves as a strong oxidant and results in appreciable losses in the measurement of serum bilirubin and uric acid.36
What are the key antioxidants in the body See Table 27.2. Apparently, the key natural anti-oxidant is the end product of purine metabolism, uric acid. Uric acid for most people is probably the main antioxidant representing from 75 to 95 of antioxidant protection in the blood. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is an important water-soluble antioxidant and the various tocopherols (vitamin E) are excellent fat-soluble antioxidants, particularly for membranes of cells. There are certain proteins that can act like antioxidants, and the tripeptide glutathiones (reduced form) are the main intercellular endogenous exogenous antioxidants (or, at least, are the ones usually mentioned). There are a variety of enzymes that function as antioxidants, e.g., the superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and various peroxidases metabolize different oxygen-based oxidants.
Patients who have cellulitis typically present with erythematous, edema-tous tender skin lesions that are warm to palpation. Regional lymphadenop-athy and lymphangitis may be present. Systemic signs usually are more prominent in patients who have associated bacteremia. The differential diagnosis for cellulitis is broad and includes deep and superficial venous thromboses gout herpes zoster angioedema contact dermatitis relapsing polychondritis local reactions to chemicals, foreign bodies, and insect venom and lymphedema, among others 29 .
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