References

1. Ye, B. H., Rao, P. H., Chaganti, R. S., and Dalla-Favera R. (1993) Cloning of bcl-6, the locus involved in chromosome translocations affecting band 3q27 in B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Res. 53, 2732-2735.

2. Chang, C. C., Ye, B. H., Chaganti, R. S., and Dalla-Favera R. (1996) BCL-6, a POZ/zinc-finger protein, is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6947-6952.

3. Niu, H., Ye, B. H., and Dalla-Favera R. (1998) Antigen receptor signaling induces MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the BCL-6 transcription factor. Genes Dev. 12, 1953-1961.

4. MacLennan, I., and Gray, D. (1986) Antigen-driven selection of virgin and memory B-cells. Immunol. Rev. 91, 61-85.

5. Allman, D., Jain, A., Dent, A., Maile, R. R., Selvaggi, T., Kehry, M. R., and Staudt, L. M. (1996) BCL-6 expression during B-cell activation. Blood 87, 5257-5268.

6. Cattoretti, G., Chang, C. C., Cechova, K., Zhang, J., Ye, B. H., Falini, B., et al. (1995) BCL-6 protein is expressed in germinal-center B-cells. Blood 86, 45-53.

7. Onizuka, T., Moriyama, M., Yamochi, T., Kuroda, T., Kazama, A., Kanazawa, N., et al. (1995) BCL-6 gene product, a 92- to 98-kD nuclear phosphoprotein, is highly expressed in germinal center B-cells and their neoplastic counterparts. Blood 86, 28-37.

8. Ye, B. H., Cattoretti, G., Shen, Q., Zhang, J., Hawe, N., de Waard, R., et al. (1997) The BCL-6 proto-oncogene controls germinal-center formation and Th2-type inflammation. Nat. Genet. 16, 161-170.

9. Dent, A. L., Shaffer, A. L., Yu, X., Allman, D., Staudt, L. M. (1997) Control of inflammation, cytokine expression and germinal center formation by BCL-6. Science 276, 589-592.

10. Fukuda, T., Yoshida, T., Okada, S., Hatano, M., Miki, T., Ishibashi, K., et al. (1997) Disruption of the Bcl6 gene results in an impaired germinal center formation. J. Exp. Med. 186, 439-448.

11. Toney, L. M., Cattoretti, G., Graf, J. A., Merghoub, T., Pandolfi, P. P., Dalla-Favera, R., et al. (2000) BCL-6 regulates chemokine gene transcription in macrophages. Nat. Immunol. 1, 214-220.

12. Reljic, R., Wagner, S. D., Peakman, L. J., and Fearon, D. T. (2000) BCL-6 suppresses STAT3 dependent B-cell terminal differentiation. J. Exp. Med. 192, 1841-1848.

13. Shvarts, A., Brummelkamp, T. R., Scheeren, F., Koh, E., Daley, G. Q., Spits, H., et al. (2002) A senescence rescue screen identifies BCL6 as an inhibitor of antiproliferative p19(ARF)-p53 signaling. Genes Dev. 16, 681-686.

14. Dent, A. L., Hu-Li, J., Paul, W. E., Staudt, L. M. (1998) T helper type 2 inflammatory disease in the absence of interleukin 4 and transcription factor STAT6. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13823-13828.

15. Faris, M., Kokot, N., Stahl, N., and Nel, A. E. (1997) Involvement of Stat3 in interleukin-6-induced IgM production in a human B-cell line. Immunology 90, 350-357.

16. Skinnider, B. F., Elia, A. J., Gascoyne, R. D., Patterson, B., Trumper, L., Kapp, U., et al. (2002) Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 is frequently activated in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 99, 618-626.

17. Harris, M. B., Chang, C. C., Berton, M. T., Danial, N. N., Zhang, J., Kuehner, D., et al. (1999) Transcriptional repression of Stat6-dependent interleukin-4-induced genes by BCL-6: specific regulation of iepsilon transcription and immunoglobulin E switching.. Mol. Cell Biol. 19, 7264-7275.

18. Shaffer, A. L., Yu, X., He, Y., Boldrick, J., Chan, E. P., and Staudt, L. M. (2000) BCL-6 represses genes that function in lymphocyte differentiation, inflammation, and cell cycle control. Immunity 13, 199-212.

19. Fearon, D. T., Manders, P., and Wagner, S. D. (2001) Arrested differentiation, the self renewing memory lymphocyte and vaccination. Science 293, 248-250.

20. Toyama, H., Okada, S., Hatano, M., Takahashi, Y., Takeda, N., Ichii, H., et al.. (2002) Memory B-cells without somatic hypermutation are generated from Bcl6-deficient B-cells. Immunity 17, 329-339.

21. Levy, D., and Darnell, J. (2002) Signalling: STATS: transcriptional control and biological impact. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 651-662.

22. Bajalica-Lagerkrantz, S., Piehl, F., Farnebo, F., Larsson, C., and Lagerkrantz, J. (1998) Expression of the BCL-6 gene in the pre- and postnatal mouse. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 247, 357-360.

23. Yoshida, T., Fukuda, T., Okabe, S., Hatano, M., Miki, T., Hirosawa, N., Isono, K., and Tokuhisa, T. (1996) The BCL6 gene is predominantly expressed in keratinocytes at their terminal differentiation stage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 228, 216-220.

24. Ye, B. H., Lista, F., Lo Coco, F., Knowles, D. M., Offit, K., Chaganti, R. S., et al.

(1993) Alterations of a zinc finger-encoding gene, BCL-6, in diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Science 262, 747-750.

25. Lo Coco, F., Ye, B. H., Lista, F., Corradini, P., Offit, K., Knowles, D. M., et al.

(1994) Rearrangements of the BCL6 gene in diffuse large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Blood 83, 1757-1759.

26. Offit, K., Coco, F. L., Louie, D., Parsa, N., Leung, D., Portlock, C., et al.. (1994) Rearrangement of the bcl-6 gene as a prognostic marker in diffuse large-cell lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 331, 74-80.

27. Skinnider, B. F., Horsman, D. E., Dupuis, B., and Gascoyne, R. D. (1999) Bcl-6 and Bcl-2 protein expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma: correlation with 3q27 and 18q21 chromosomal abnormalities. Hum.

Pathol. 30, 803-808.

28. Raible, M. D., Hsi, E. D., and Alkan, S. (1999) Bcl-6 protein expression by follicle center lymphomas. A marker for differentiating follicle center lymphomas from other low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 112, 101-107.

29. Dogan, A., Bagdi, E., Munson, P., and Isaacson, P. G. (2000) CD10 and BCL-6 expression in paraffin sections of normal lymphoid tissue and B-cell lymphomas. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 24, 846-852.

30. Carbone, A., Gloghini, A., Gaidano, G., Dalla-Favera, R., and Falini B. (1997) BCL-6 protein expression in human peripheral T-cell neoplasms is restricted to CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Blood 90, 2445-2450.

31. Alizadeh, A. A., Eisen, M. B., Davis, R. E., Ma, C., Lossos, I. S., Rosenwald, A., et al. (2000) Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling. Nature 403, 503-511.

32. Shipp, M., Ross, K., Tamayo, P., Weng, A., Kutok, J., Aguiar, R., et al. (2002) Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene expression profiling and supervised machine learning. Nat. Med. 8, 68-74.

33. Rosenwald, A., Wright, G., Chan, W. C., Connors, J. M., Campo, E., Fisher, R. I., et al., and Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project. (2002) The use of molecular profiling to predict survival after chemotherapy for diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 346, 1937-1947.

34. Butler, M. P., Iida, S., Capello, D., Rossi, D., Rao, P. H., Nallasivam, P., et al. (2002) Alternative translocation breakpoint cluster region 5' to BCL-6 in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Res. 62, 4089-4094.

35. Ye, B., Chaganti, S., Chang, C., Niu, H., Corradini, P., Chaganti, R, et al. (1995) Chromosomal translocations cause deregulated BCL6 expression by promoter substitution in B-cell lymphoma. EMBO J. 14, 6209-6217.

36. Akasaka, H., Akasaka, T., Kurata, M., Ueda, C., Shimizu, A., Uchiyama, T., et al. (2000) Molecular anatomy of BCL6 translocations revealed by long-distance polymerase chain reaction-based assays. Cancer Res. 60, 2335-2341.

37. Akasaka, T., Ueda, C., Kurata, M., Akasaka, H., Yamabe, H., Uchiyama, T., and Ohno, H. (2000) Nonimmunoglobulin (non-Ig)/BCL6 gene fusion in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma results in worse prognosis than Ig/BCL6. Blood 96, 2907-2909.

38. Ueda, C., Akasaka, T., Kurata, M., Maesako, Y., Nishikori, M., Ichinohasama, R., et al. (2002) The gene for interleukin-21 receptor is the partner of BCL6 in t(3;16)(q27;p11), which is recurrently observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Oncogene 21, 368-376.

39. Chen, W., Itoyama, T., and Chaganti, R. (2001) Splicing factor SRP20 is a novel partner of BCL6 in a t(3;6)(q27;p21) translocation in transformed follicular lymphoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 32, 281-284.

40. Galiegue-Zouitina, S., Quief, S., Hildebrand, M. P., Denis, C., Detourmignies, L., Lai, J. L., et al. (1999) Nonrandom fusion of L-plastin (LCP1) and LAZ3 (BCL6) genes by t(3;13)(q27;q14) chromosome translocation in two cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 26, 97-105.

41. Hosokawa, Y., Maeda, Y., Ichinohasama, R., Miura, I., Taniwaki, M., and Seto, M. (2000) The Ikaros gene, a central regulator of lymphoid differentiation, fuses to the BCL6 gene as a result of t(3;7)(q27;p12) translocation in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood 95, 2719-2721.

42. Yoshida, S., Y. Kaneita, Y. Aoki, M. Seto, S. Mori, and M. Moriyama. (1999) Identification of heterologous translocation partner genes fused to the BCL6 gene in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: 5'-RACE and LA - PCR analyses of biopsy samples. Oncogene 18, 7994-7999.

43. Dallery, E., Galiegue-Zouitina, S., Collyn-d'Hooghe, M., Quief, S., Denis, C., Hildebrand, M. P., et al.(1995) TTF, a gene encoding a novel small G protein, fuses to the lymphoma-associated LAZ3 gene by t(3;4) chromosomal translocation. Oncogene 10, 2171-2178.

44. Galiegue-Zouitina, S., Quief, S., Hildebrand, M.,. Denis, C., Lecocq, G., Collyn-d'Hooghe, M., et al. (1995) Fusion of the LAZ3/BCL6 and BOB1/OBF1 genes by t(3; 11) (q27; q23) chromosomal translocation. C R Acad. Sci. III 318, 11251131.

45. Xu, W. S., Liang, R. H., and Srivastava, G. (2000) Identification and characterization of BCL6 translocation partner genes in primary gastric high-grade B-cell lymphoma: heat shock protein 89 alpha is a novel fusion partner gene of BCL6. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27, 69-75.

46. Kawasaki, C., Ohshim, K., Suzumiya, J., Kanda, M., Tsuchiya, T., Tamura, K., et al. (2001) Rearrangements of bcl-1, bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Leuk. Lymphoma 42, 1099-1106.

47. Huang, J., Sanger, W., Greiner, T., Staudt, L. Weisenburger, D., Pickering, D., et al. (2002) The t(14;18) defines a unique subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a germinal center B-cell gene expression profile. Blood 99, 2285-2290.

48. Horsman, D. E., McNeil, B. K., Anderson, M., Shenkier, T., and Gascoyne, R. D. (1995) Frequent association of t(3;14) or variant with other lymphoma-specific translocations. Br. J. Haematol. 89, 569-575.

49. Au, W. Y., Gascoyne, R. D., Viswanatha, D. S., Skinnider, B. F., Connors, J. M., Klasa, R. J., et al. (1999) Concurrent chromosomal alterations at 3q27, 8q24 and 18q21 in B-cell lymphomas. Br. J. Haematol. 105, 437-440.

50. Berek, C., and Milstein, C. (1987) Mutation drift and repertoire shift in the maturation of the immune response. Immunol. Rev. 96, 23-41.

51. Wagner, S., and Neuberger, M. (1996) Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14, 441-457.

52. Revy, P., Muto, T., Levy, Y., Geissmann, F., Plebani, A., Sanal, O., et al. (2000) Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency causes the autosomal recessive form of the Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Cell 102, 565-575.

53. Muramatsu, M., Kinoshita, K., Fagarasan, S., Yamada, S., Shinkai, Y., and Honjo T. (2000) Class switch recombination and hypermutation require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a potential RNA editing enzyme. Cell 102, 553-563.

54. Harris, R. S., Sale, J. E., Petersen-Mahrt, S. K., and Neuberger, M. S. (2002) AID is essential for immunoglobulin V gene conversion in a cultured B-cell line. Curr. Biol. 12, 435-438.

55. Nagaoka, H., Muramatsu, M., Yamamura, N., Kinoshita, K., and Honjo T. (2002) Activation-induced deaminase (AID)-directed hypermutation in the immunoglo-bulin Smu region: implication of AID involvement in a common step of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. J. Exp. Med. 195, 529-534.

56. Okazaki, I. M., Kinoshita, K., Muramatsu, M., Yoshikawa, K., and Honjo T. (2002) The AID enzyme induces class switch recombination in fibroblasts. Nature 416, 340-345.

57. Jacob, J., Kelsoe, G., Rajewsky, K., and Weiss U. (1991) Intraclonal generation of antibody mutants in germinal centers. Nature 354, 389-392.

58. Pasqualucci, L., Migliazza, A., Fracchiolla, N., William, C., Neri, A., Baldini, L., et al. (1998) BCL-6 mutations in normal germinal center B-cells: evidence of somatic hypermutation acting outside Ig loci. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 11816-11821.

59. Shen, H. M., Peters, A., Baron, B., Zhu, X., and Storb U. (1998) Mutation of BCL-6 gene in normal B-cells by the process of somatic hypermutation of Ig genes. Science 280, 1750-1752.

60. Pasqualucci, L., Neumeister, P., Goossens, T., Nanjangud, G., Chaganti, R. S., Kuppers, R., et al. (2001) Hypermutation of multiple proto-oncogenes in B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphomas. Nature 412, 341-346.

61. Nakamura, Y., K. Saito, and S. Furusawa. (1999) Analysis of internal deletions within the BCL6 gene in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br. J. Haematol. 105, 274-277.

62. Gottgens, B., Gilbert, J. G., Barton, L. M., Grafham, D., Rogers, J., Bentley, D. R., et al. (2001) Long-range comparison of human and mouse SCL loci: localized regions of sensitivity to restriction endonucleases correspond precisely with peaks of conserved noncoding sequences. Genome Res. 11, 87-97.

63. Kikuchi, M., Miki, T., Kumagai, T., Fukuda, T., Kamiyama, R., Miyasaka, N., and Hirosawa, S. (2000) Identification of negative regulatory regions within the first exon and intron of the BCL-6 gene. Oncogene 19, 4941-4945.

64. Lossos, I., Jacobs, Y., Cleary, M., and Levy, R. (2001) Correspondence re: Akasaka, H. et al. Molecular anatomy of BCL6 translocations revealed by longdistance polymerase chain reaction based assays. Cancer Res. 60, 2335-2341, 2000. Cancer Res. 61, 7363-7364.

65. Migliazza, A., Martinotti, S., Chen, W., Fusco, C., Ye, B. H., Knowles, D. M., et al. (1995) Frequent somatic hypermutation of the 5' noncoding region of the BCL6 gene in B-cell lymphoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12520-12524.

66. Capello, D., Vitolo, U., Pasqualucci, L., Quattrone, S., Migliaretti, G., Fassone, L., et al. (2000) Distribution and pattern of BCL-6 mutations throughout the spectrum of B-cell neoplasia. Blood 95, 651-659.

67. Artiga, M. J., Saez, A. I., Romero, C., Sanchez-Beato, M., Mateo, M. S., Navas, C., et al. (2002) A short mutational hot spot in the first intron of BCL-6 is associated with increased BCL-6 expression and with longer overall survival in large B-cell lymphomas. Am. J. Pathol. 160, 1371-1380.

68. Lossos, I. S., Levy R. (2000) Mutation analysis of the 5' noncoding regulatory region of the BCL-6 gene in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: evidence for recurrent mutations and intraclonal heterogeneity. Blood 95, 1400-1405.

69. Rogozin, I., and N. Kolchanov. (1992) Somatic hypermutagenesis in immunoglobulin genes. I. I. Influence of neighbouring base sequences on mutagenesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1171, 11-18.

70. Vitolo, U., Botto, B., Capello, D., Vivenza, D., Zagonel, V., Gloghini, A., et al. (2002) Point mutations of the BCL-6 gene: clinical and prognostic correlation in B-diffuse large cell lymphoma. Leukemia 16, 268-275.

71. Sahota, S., Davis, Z., Hamblin, T., and Stevenson, F. (2000) Somatic mutation of bcl-6 genes can occur in the absence of V(H) mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 95, 3534-3540.

72. Pasqualucci, L., Neri, A., Baldini, L., Dalla-Favera, R., and Migliazza A. (2000) BCL-6 mutations are associated with immunoglobulin variable heavy chain mutations in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Res. 60, 5644-5648.

73. Seitz, V., Hummel, M., Anagnostopoulos, I., and Stein, H. (2001) Analysis of BCL-6 mutations in classic Hodgkin disease of the B- and T-cell type. Blood 97, 2401-2405.

74. Wang, X., Li, Z., Naganuma, A., and Ye, B. (2002) Negative autoregulation of BCL-6 is bypassed by genetic alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15018-15023.

75. Pasqualucci, L., Migliazza, A., Basso, K., Houldsworth, J., Chaganti, R., and Dalla-Favera, R. (2003) Mutations of the BCL-6 proto-oncogene disrupt its negative autoregulation in diffuse large cell lymphoma. Blood 101, 2914-2923.

76. Lossos, I., and Levy, R. (2000) Higher-grade transformation of follicle center lymphoma is associated withsomatic mutation of the 5' noncoding regulatory region of the BCL-6 gene. Blood 96, 635-639.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment