The Gallstone Elimination Report

Gallstone Natural Solutions by David Smith

The Gallstone Elimination Report is a new program developed by David Smith, who has many years of experience in the health industry. The program provides people with step-by-step strategies on how to remove their gallstones quickly and effectively. With the program, people will find out the top 3 digestive conditions related to gallbladder disease and how to relieve them easily. Besides, the program guides people on how to prevent gallstones from coming back. Users will also know how to boost their energy levels and how to slow down the aging process. With The Gallstone Elimination Report, you will have the natural solutions for your gallbladder problem. The author is confident that these solutions work. Just apply them and you can restore your gallbladder back to perfect health. You never have to worry about gallbladder pain anymore. Read more...

The Gallstone Elimination Report Summary

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Author: David Smith
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Factors Related To Increased Gallstone Formation In The Obese

Why gallstones form in some persons and not in others, and in particular, why the obese are predisposed to the development of gallstones is an object of continued study. In this section we discuss some of the individual and environmental factors related to increased gallstone risk and the manner in which these factors may affect the mechanisms of gallstone formation. It has been suggested that high total caloric intake (after BMI is taken into account), meal spacing, fasting, caloric restriction and many other dietary variables can affect gallstone formation (14). We mention here some of the findings on diet composition most relevant to obesity. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that cholesterol intake or serum total cholesterol is related to risk for formation of cholesterol gallstones. It has been suggested that since obese people have higher bile saturation indices than the non-obese, perhaps because of increased hepatic secretion of cholesterol into the bile, that dietary...

Prevention And Treatment Of Gallstones

Because ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) acts to decrease bile saturation it was investigated as an agent to preventing lithogenic changes in bile during weight loss. Aspirin was also studied as an agent which might inhibit nucleation and thereby reduce gallstone risk. Broomfield et al. (32) randomized 68 obese patients into placebo, UDCA (1200mg day) and aspirin (1300mg day) treatment groups. All participants consumed a low-calorie powdered food supplement (55 g protein, 79 g carbohydrate, 1g fat) amounting to 520kcal day (2177kJ day). Mean weight loss in the groups was between 21 and 25 kg over a period of 16 weeks. Follow-up ultrasound scans at 4 weeks and 19 weeks showed that UDCA successfully prevented formation of gallstones. The aspirin medication resulted in a lower but non-significant difference from placebo. To investigate further the possible preventive effects of aspirin, Kurata et al. (33) examined data from 4524 patients in a randomized, controlled trial where half the...

Gallstone Formation

There are two common types of gallstone in the USA and Europe. The most common, and the only type associated with obesity, is the cholesterol gallstone which consists mainly of accretions of cholesterol crystals around a nucleus. The other gallstone type, the pigment stone, is less frequently seen, contains larger amounts of calcium, and is usually associated with chronic hemolytic states and bacterial infections rather than with obesity (1). Cholesterol gallstone formation is a process that requires the convergence of several conditions. First, in order for gallstones to form, the bile must be supersaturated with cholesterol. The degree of cholesterol saturation of bile is affected by many factors including the rate of cholesterol synthesis by While bile supersaturation is a necessary condition for gallstone formation, it is not sufficient, as studies have identified many individuals with supersaturated bile and no sign of gallstones. An environment conducive to stone formation must...

Overview of the Health Costs

US figures suggest that about 61 of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 17 of both coronary heart disease (CHD) and hypertension can be attributed to obesity. Indeed, as a person's BMI creeps up through overweight into the obese category and beyond, the risk of developing a number of chronic non-communicable diseases such as NIDDM, CHD, gallbladder disease, and certain types of cancer increases rapidly. There is also a graded increase in relative risk of premature death (Figure 1.1).

Studying the Digestive Tract

Motility of the intestine or the presence of obstructions that prevent the passage of food along the gastrointestinal tract can be observed by X-ray techniques. A liquid substance, such as a barium suspension, which is opaque to X rays, is swallowed. A series of X rays is taken, or continuous monitoring by an X-ray camera is used. Obstructions can be visualized from the buildup of barium above the blockade. The speed of movement can be estimated to determine if the overall motility of the gastrointestinal tract is abnormal. X rays can also be used to determine directly the presence of abnormal structures such as gallstones, which form in the bile ducts, or tumors. The bile duct and gallbladder system can be visualized with X rays by administering a radioopaque dye that is secreted by the liver into the duct system.

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

GALLSTONE-SOLUBILIZING DRUGS Gallstone-solubilizing (gallstone-dissolving) drugs, such as ursodiol (Actigall), suppress the manufacture of cholesterol and cholic acid by the liver. The suppression of the manufacture of cholesterol and cholic acid may ultimately result in a decrease in the size of radiolucent gallstones.

Bowel Obstruction In The Elderly

Causes of bowel obstruction usually specific to the elderly include sigmoid volvulus, Ogilvie's Syndrome, colon carcinoma, and gallstone ileus. These conditions in the elderly patient can lead to gangrene with resulting perforation. 4.3. Gallstone Ileus An interesting, yet rare, cause for small bowel obstruction in the elderly is gallstone ileus. This is caused by the passage of a large biliary calculus from the gallbladder to the distal iliem through a cholecystenteric fistula. This disorder carries an overall mortality rate of 15 . Rigler's triad, which includes small bowel obstruction, ectopic gallstones, and pneumobilia, characterizes this disorder. Enterolithotomy, which carries an operative mortality of 12 , is the procedure of choice (21). A one-stage procedure of enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy, and fistula repair carries a mortality of 17 (22).

Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Mri

The sulfatide accumulation in other organs (kidney, liver, pancreas, adrenal, gallbladder and intestinal tract) does not lead to impairment of functions. Only the gallbladder shows progressive functional impairment attributable to sulfatide accumulation, but gallbladder disease does not contribute to the fatal outcome of MLD. The tolerance of these tissues for sulfatides may be related to the fact that these organs have an excretory function and can discharge the accumulating lipid from the cell into urine, bile, or other fluids. Another important factor is that the sulfatide content of the cellular membranes in these organs is normally much lower than that of the myelin membrane, which has a remarkably high content of galactosphingolipids (cerebroside and sulfatide).

Metabolic Complications of Short Bowel Syndrome

There is an increased incidence of gallstones among patients with a jejunostomy and those with short bowel in continuity with the colon. It is assumed that precipitation of cholesterol occurs due to the low concentration of bile salts in bile as a consequence of ileal resection causing an interruption of the enterohepatic circulation.

Case Study for Chapter

About 2 years ago, the patient developed gallstones, which required surgery to remove the gallbladder. For about one week after the surgery, the patient had to increase his insulin dosage to maintain normal blood glucose levels. He gradually returned to his presurgery insulin dose. 1. Why might the gallbladder disease and resulting surgery have increased the patient's need for insulin

Hepatobiliary Complications

Complications Crohn Disease

The incidence of hepatobiliary complications ranges from 5 to 15 in IBD patients. These complications include steatosis, cholelithiasis and PSC. An Italian study reported an overall prevalence of hepatobiliary alterations, e.g. steatosis and altered liver function test results, in 12 of IBD patients. A recent study by Bargiggia et al. reported gallstones, liver steatosis and liver enlargement in about 55 of 511 IBD patients undergoing abdominal ultrasound (Fig. 3). Cholelithiasis is reportedly more frequent in patients with IBD, and the risk of gallstones was found increased in both CD and UC patients odds ratio (OR) 3.6 for CD and 2.5 for UC . The risk was also greater in patients with CD localised in the distal ileum (OR 4.5) and in UC patients with pancolitis (OR 3.3) 57 . In a study on 251 patients with CD, Hutchinson et al. found a 28 prevalence of gallstones and the only independent risk factor was prior surgery 58 .

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone Replacement Progress

Hormone replacement therapy was associated with a three-fold increase in venous thromboembolic events, a 3- to 8-fold increase in lifetime risk of developing endometrial cancer, and an increase in gallbladder disease (60,61). The Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis (ERA) Study utilized quantitative coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Women were treated with hormone replacement therapy or placebo and underwent cardiac catheterization. After 3 yr of follow-up the mean change in lumen diameter was not significantly different between treatment groups (62). These trials, therefore, form the basis for the current American Heart Association American College of Cardiology (AHA ACC) recommendation that hormone replacement therapy does not play a role in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease however, for women who presently take estrogen compounds, there is no benefit to discontinue this therapy (63).

Screening For Obesity

Although obesity should be regarded as a disease entity of its own, many of its more serious consequences are due to the strong relations that exist between obesity and some common chronic diseases. Obesity is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnoea, gallbladder disease and certain types of cancer.

Natural Causes of Death in Patients With Schizophrenia

Wondered about the role of obesity and poor diet in patients with schizophrenia, given that these are risk factors for gallstones, and hence possibly for gallbladder cancer. The authors did not find a significantly increased incidence of breast cancer (SIR 1.15, 95 CI 0.98-1.34) but did find a higher rate of uterine cancer (SIR 1.75, 95 CI 1.19-2.48), suggesting obesity, low levels of physical activity, and lower parity as possible causes. The inconsistency of these findings with the other cancer incidence and mortality studies in schizophrenia dictates caution in accepting these as correct. For instance, still another study suggests increased risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer was found at a higher rate on mammograms done for all female psychiatric patients at the Buffalo Psychiatric Center compared with women who had been referred for mammograms to the same radiology service because of possible breast disease (Halbreich et al. 1996). Thus, one cannot draw a firm conclusion about...

Table E124

1.25 Risk factors of gallstone disease were investigated in male self-defense officials who received, between October 1986 and December 1990, a retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Some of the data are shown in Table E1.25. (a) For each of the three factors (smoking, alcohol, and body mass index), rearrange the data into a 3 x 2 table the other column is for those without gallstones.

Foodborne Outbreaks

Food contaminated by a typhoid carrier during preparation may result in a series of intermittent typhoid cases over time or in a more dramatic, contained outbreak. Typhoid Mary, the now infamous typhoid carrier, was a transient, hired household cook in New York State during the early 1900s. This chronic typhoid carrier succeeded in initiating at least 10 typhoid outbreaks, which were ultimately responsible for at least 53 cases of typhoid fever and 3 deaths (30). She refused cholecystectomy and evaded authorities for many years until she was eventually quarantined for the remainder of her life. Older women are three times as likely to become carriers as men, due to a higher prevalence of gallbladder disease. Women over age 40 have a 16 chance of becoming a chronic carrier after infection by S. Typhi if not given appropriate antibiotic therapy. Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by chronic typhoid carriers are still common today due to frequent international travel. For example, in a...

The History

The diagnosis of intra-ahdominal disease is more often dependeni upon a careful history' than on the presence of physical signs. Pain is prominent among the symptoms encountered in the alimentary system, and may also be present in genitourinary diseases. When pain is present, taking an accurate history usually indicates the probable diagnosis and the best method of investigating the problem. If the history is inadequate, unnecessary tests may result in the discovery of asymptomatic abnormalities such as hiatus hernia or gallstones, leading to inappropriate management and even unnecessary surgery. Conversely, some important conditions, such as chronic renal failure, may only be detected on biochemical screening, in the absence of symptoms or signs.

Epidemiology

Gallbladder disease occurs frequently and is widespread. It is estimated that about 12 of adults in the USA have gallstones. Over 500 000 cholecystectomies occur annually in the USA (3,4). A note about the research methods used to arrive at such figures is warranted. The prevalence of gallstones in various populations has been estimated using at least three different methods surveys counting subject reports of cholecystectomies and symptoms surveys using ultrasound screenings of population samples and tabulations of autopsy results. In considering these data the following methodological observations should be kept in mind About two-thirds of gallstones are asymptomatic and will not be detected unless radiology or ultra-sonography is employed, and even with modern ultrasound instruments there is a small false-negative rate (about 4 ) in severely obese subjects (5,6). Gallstones may be passed or evacuated without intervention, or may resolve spontaneously (7). Most cases remain...

Bile Acids

Cholesterol Bile

Other essential features of the molecule are introduced earlier. The A B ring system is ds-fused, and this is achieved by reduction of a A4 rather than a A5 double bond (see page 241). Migration of the double bond is accomplished via the 3-ketone, and when this is reduced back to a hydroxyl the configuration at C-3 is changed to 3a. Both cholic acid and chenodeoxy-cholic acid (Figure 5.110) are formed in the liver, though the 7a-hydroxyl functions of these compounds can be removed by intestinal microflora, so that mammalian bile also contains deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid (Figure 5.110). The bile salts are then usually reabsorbed and stored in the gall bladder, although they are also excreted as the body's main means of eliminating excess cholesterol. Inability to remove cholesterol by bile acid synthesis and excretion may contribute to atherosclerosis and gallstone disease gallstones often contain more than 70 of cholesterol. Bile acids are obtained by...

Principles

Explain why the pancreas is considered both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. Given this information, predict what effects tying of the pancreatic duct would have on pancreatic structure and function. Explain how jaundice is produced when (a) the person has gallstones, (b) the person has a high rate of red blood cell destruction, and (c) the person has liver disease. In which case(s) would phototherapy for the jaundice be effective Explain. Describe the steps involved in the digestion and absorption of fat.

Jaundice

Enterohepatic System And Urobilinogen

Typical symptoms include itching (pruritus), dark urine and pale stools. Obstruction of the biliary tract is usually extrahepatic in origin and caused by either gallstones or pancreatic carcinoma. The former is suggested by a history of fever, rigors, biliary colic or previous biliary surgery in the latter, chronic persistent back pain, aggravated by recumbency, and palpable enlargement of the gall bladder may occur. Intrahepatic obstruction is most often due to alcohol abuse, drug therapy and primary biliary cirrhosis (a disorder of middle-aged women often preceded by marked pruritus).

Gallbladder

Pancreas Secretion Pancreatic Juice

Approximately 20 million Americans have gallstones small, hard mineral deposits (calculi) that q can produce painful symptoms by obstructing the cystic or common bile ducts. Gallstones commonly contain cholesterol as their major component. Cholesterol normally has an extremely low water solubility (20 lg L), but it can be present in bile at 2 million times its water solubility (40 g L) because cholesterol molecules cluster together with bile salts and lecithin in the hydrophobic centers of micelles. In order for gallstones to be produced, the liver must secrete enough cholesterol to create a supersaturated solution, and some substance within the gallbladder must serve as a nucleus for the formation of cholesterol crystals. The gallstone is formed from cholesterol crystals that become hardened by the precipitation of inorganic salts (fig. 18.27). Gallstones may be removed surgically cholesterol gallstones, however, may be dissolved by oral ingestion of bile acids. This may be combined...

Cholecystitis

The most common cause for surgical intraabdominal infections in the elderly is acute cholecystitis, and the number of cholecystectomies in the elderly is increasing (6). The incidence of this disease is higher in the female. However, the female-to-male ratio lowers from 3 1 in younger adults to 1.5 1 in patients older than 50. Cholelithiasis accounts for 95 of acute cholecystitis, with the other 5 termed acalculous cholecystitis. The incidence of cholelithiasis increases with age, ranging from 25-40 for those in their sixties to over 50 in those 70 yr and older (7). Acute cholecystitis appears to be caused by obstruction of the cystic duct by an impacted stone. The sequelae of this may be simple acute cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, perforation of the gallbladder with possible bile peritonitis, or cholecystoenteric fistula. If a cholecystoenteric fistula is found in the presence of small bowel obstruction, the possibility of a gallstone lodged in the distal ileum should be...

Hman In Vb Studies

Gallbladder motility has also been evaluated since patients with CD have an increased risk of developing gallstones. Fasting gallbladder volume is decreased in patients with large-bowel involvement or after ileocecal resection, whereas postprandial motility seems to be unaffected 19 . Impaired gastric emptying was found in a subgroup of CD patients who complained of mild upper gut symptoms such as bloating, early satiety and abdominal distention and in those with localization restricted to the colon 3 . The impact of psychological, physical, and immuno-logical stressors on gastrointestinal secretion, motili-ty, epithelial permeability, and inflammation is now thoroughly documented, and stress has a major influence on digestive diseases 20 . Psychological stress is one environmental factor which has long been reported as having a relationship with activity in IBD. Psychological (dichotomous listening tests, stressful interviews) and physical (cold hand immersion) stress modulates gut...

Estrogens

Malignancies are the most feared potential complication of estrogen therapy (see Caution). It is clear that unopposed prolonged estrogen use increases the risk for endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. However, an association with breast cancers remains a topic of great debate. Other potential adverse effects are manifold and include hypertension, hypercoagulability and thromboembolic disorders, fluid retention, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, skin rashes, glucose intolerance, hypercalcemia, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal serum liver chemistries, cholestasis, gallbladder disease, breakthrough vaginal bleeding, menstrual-type cramping, fibroid enlargement, changes in affect, migraine headaches, mastodynia, and breast secretions. Estrogens increase the risk for endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women concomitant administration of progestin in women with intact uteri is recommended to reduce this risk. Estrogens are associated with developmental defects in fetal...

Obesity

Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mel-litus, gallbladder disease, and some malignancies (particularly endometrial and breast cancer). The distribution of fat in the body is also important there is a greater risk of cardiovascular disease when the distribution of fat produces a high waist-to-hip ratio, or an apple shape, as compared to a pear shape. This is because the amount of intra-abdominal fat in the mesenteries and greater omentum is a better predictor of a health hazard than is the amount of subcutaneous fat. In terms of the risk of diabetes mellitus, the larger adipocytes of the apple shape are less sensitive to insulin than the smaller adipocytes of the pear shape.

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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