Tauxe Campylobacter Jejuni Current Status And Future Trends.

agarwal s and shende s t (1987), 'Tetrazolium reducing microorganisms inside the root of Brassica species', Curr Sci, 56, 187-8. ait melloul a and hassani l (1999), 'Salmonella infection in children from the wastewater-spreading zone of Marrakesh city (Morocco)', J Appl Microbiol, 87, 536-9.

ajariyakhajorn c, goyal s m, robinson r a, johnston l j and clanton c a (1997), 'The survival of Salmonella anatum, pseudorabies virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in swine slurry', New Microbiol, 20, 365-9. alcayaga s (1993), 'Changes in the morbidity profile of certain enteric infections after the cholera epidemic', Revista Chile Infect, 1, 5-10. alexandre m and prado v (2003), 'Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food', Exp Rev Anticancer Therapy, 3,105-15. al-ghazali m r and al-azawi s k (1990), Listeria monocytogenes contamination of crops grown on soil treated with sewage sludge cake', J Appl Bacteriol, 69, 642-7. allos b m and taylor d n (1998),'Campylobacter infections'. In Bacterial Infections of Humans, Evans A S and Brachman P (eds), New York, Plenum Medical, 169-90.

Andrews w h, mislivec p b, wilson c r, bruce v r, polema p l, gibson m r, trucksess w and young k (1982), 'Microbial hazards associated with bean sprouting', J AOAC Int, 65, 241-8. anon (2000a), 'Foodborne Disease: A focus for health education', Geneva: World

Health Organization. anon (2000b), 'A Report of the Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in England',

Food Standards Agency, London, The Stationery Office. anon (2004), 'Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant -

Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003', Ann Emerg Med 43, 660-2. armon r, dosoretz c g, azov y and shelef g (1994), 'Residual contamination of crops irrigated with effluent of different qualities: a field study', Water Sci Technol 30, 239-48.

armon r, gold d, brodsky m and oron g (2002), 'Surface and subsurface irrigation with effluents of different qualities and presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in soil and on crops', Water Sci Technol 46,115-22. artz r r e and killham k (2002), 'Survival of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in private drinking water wells: influences of protozoan grazing and elevated copper concentrations', FEMS Microbiol Lett, 216, 117-22. baker, k f (1972), 'Seed pathology'. In Seed Biology, Kozlowski T T (ed), New York,

Academic Press, pp 425-58. baker b, zambryski p, staskawicz b and dineshkumar s p (1997), 'Signaling in plant-

microbe interactions', Science 276, 726-33. baldani j i, caruso l, baldani v l d, goi s r and dobereiner j (1997), 'Recent advances in BNF with non-legume plants', Soil Biol Biochem 29, 911-22. baloda, s b, christensen l and trajcevska s (2001), 'Persistence of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 clone in a piggery and in agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated slurry', Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 2859-62.

barraquio w l, revilla l and ladha j k (1997), 'Isolation of endophytic dia-

zotrophic bacteria from wetland rice', Plant Soil 194,15-24. bastos r k x and mara d d (1995), 'The bacterial quality of salad crops drip and furrow irrigated with waste stabilization pond effluent: an evaluation of the WHO guidelines', Water Sci Technol 31,425-30. bean n h and griffin p m (1990), 'Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States,

1973-1987: pathogens, vehicles, and trends', J Food Prot 53, 804-17. bell c r, dickie g a and chan g w y (1995), 'Endophytic bacteria in grape vine', Can

J Microbiol 41, 46-53. bennett c m, dalton c, beers-deeble m, milazzo a, kraa e, davos d, puech m, tan a and heuzenroeder m w (2003), 'Fresh garlic: a possible vehicle for Salmonella Virchow', Epidem Inf 131,1041-8. beuchat l r (1996), 'Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce', J Food Prot 59, 204-16.

beuchat l r (1999), 'Survival of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine faeces applied to lettuce and the effectiveness of chlorinated water as a disinfectant', J Food Prot 62, 845-9. beuchat l r and ryu, j h (1997), 'Produce handling and processing practices: special issue', Emerg Infect Dis 3, 459-65. bidawid s, farber j m and sattar s a (2000), 'Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption', Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 2759-63. bolton d j, byrne c m, sheridan j j, mcdowell d a, blair i s and hegarty, t (1999), 'The survival characteristics of a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7'. In Verocytoxigenic E. coli in Europe. 2. Survival and growth of verocytoxigenic E. coli, Duffy G, Garvey P, Coia J, Wasteson Y and McDowell D A (eds),Teagasc,The National Food Centre, Dublin, Ireland. bower j r, congeni b l, cleary t g, stone r t, wanger a, murray b e, mathewson j j and Pickering l k (1989), 'Escherichia coli O114: nonmotile as a pathogen in an outbreak of severe diarrhea associated with a day care center'. J Infect Dis 160, 243-7.

brackett r e (1992), 'Shelf stability and safety of fresh produce as influenced by sanitation and disinfection', J Food Prot 55, 808-14. brandl m t and mandrell r w (2000), 'Use of confocal microscopy and the green fluorescent protein in ecological studies of Salmonella on plant surfaces', J Scanning Microsc 22, 83-9. brandl m t and mandrell r e (2002), 'Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar

Thompson in the cilantro phyllosphere'. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 3614-21. brandl m t, haxo a f, bates a h and mandrell r e (2004), 'Comparison of survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the phyllosphere with that in the rhizosphere of spinach and radish plants'. Appl Environ Microbiol 70,1182-9. bressan w and borges m t (2004), 'Delivery methods for introducing endophytic bacteria into maize', Biocontrol 49, 315-22. brugidou o n, bonneau c, nicole m, beachy r n, yeager m and fauquet c (1998), 'Movement of rice yellow mottle virus between xylem cells through pit membranes', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 3323-8. buckhout t j and thimm o (2003), 'Insights into metabolism obtained from microar-

ray analysis', Current Op Plant Biol, 6, 288-96. burnett a b and beuchat l r (2001), 'Comparison of sample preparation methods for recovering Salmonella from raw fruits, vegetables and herbs', J Food Prot 64, 1459-65.

Canadian food inspection agency (cfa) (2001), 'Code of Practice for the Hygienic Production of Sprouted Seeds', http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/fresh/ sprointe.shtml carmichael i, harper i s, conventry m j, taylor p w j, wan j and hickey w m (1999), 'Bacterial colonization and biofilm development on minimally processed vegetables', J Appl Microbiol 85,45S-51S. centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) (1990). CDC surveillance summaries; March 1, 2000 MMWR 39 (SS-1), 15-23. centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) (2000). CDC surveillance summaries; March 17, 2000, MMWR 49 (SS-1), 1-51. chanway c p (1998), 'Bacterial endophytes: ecological and practical implications', Syowia (50), 149-70.

chao w l, ding r j and chen r s (1988), 'Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in the environment', Can J Microbiol 34, 753-6. chapman p a, siddons c a, wright d j, norman p, fox j and crick e (1993), 'Cattle as a possible source of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections in man', Epidemiol Infect, 111, 439-47.

charkowski a o, barak j d, sarreal c z and mandrell r e (2002), 'Differences in growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts', Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 3114-20. cieslak p r, barrett t j, griffin p m, gensheimer k f, beckett g, buffington j and smith m g (1993), 'Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from a manured garden', Lancet 342, 8867.

clay k (1989), 'Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses: their potential as biocontrol agents', Mycol Res 92,1-12. cliver d o (1997), 'Virus transmission via food', World Health Stat Q 50, 91-104. cooley m b, miller w g and mandrell r e (2003), 'Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana with Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: H7 and competition by Enterobacter absuriae', Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 4915-26.

croci l, de medici d, scalfaro c, fiore a and toti l (2002), 'The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce', Int J Food Microbiol 73, 29-34. deng m y and cliver d o (1995), 'Persistence of inoculated hepatitis A virus in mixed human and animal wastes', Appl Environ Microbiol 61, 87-91. downs t j, cifuentes-garcia e and suffet i m (1999), 'Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region', Environ Health Perspectives 107, 553-61. duff b, schouten a and raaijmakers j m (2003), 'Pathogen self-defense: Mechanisms to counteract microbial antagonism', Ann Rev Phytopath 41, 501-38. dumas b, centis s, sarrazin n and esquerre-tugaye m t (1999), 'Use of green fluorescent protein to detect expression of an endopolygalacturonase gene of Col-letotrichum lindemuthianum during bean infection', Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 1769-71.

dumetre a and darde m l (2003), 'How to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental samples?', FEMS Microbiol Rev 27, 651-61. elbeltagy a, nishioka k, sato t and suzuki h (2001), 'Endophytic colonisation and in planta nitrogen fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp isolated from wild rice species', Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 5285-93. enriquez c, alum a, suarez-rey e m, choi c y, oron g and gerba c p (2003), 'Bacteriophages MS2 and PRD1 in turfgrass by subsurface drip irrigation', J Environ Eng 129, 852-7.

evans m r, ribeiro c d and salmon r l (2003), 'Hazards of healthy living: Bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for campylobacter infection', Emerg Infect Dis 9,1219-25. exall k (2004), 'A review of water reuse and recycling, with reference to Canadian practice and potential: 2. Applications', Water Qual Res J Can 39,13-28. farber j m and peterkin p i (1991), 'Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen',

Microbiol Rev 55,476-511. fasciolo g e, meca m i, gabriel e and morabito j (2002), 'Effects on crops of irrigation with treated municipal wastewaters', Water Sci Technol 45,133-8. federighi m, magras c, pilet m f, woodward d, johnson w, jugiau f and jouve j l (1999), 'Incidence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in foods assessed by NF ISO 10272 standard: results of a two-year study', Food Microbiol 16, 195-204.

fiore a e (2004), 'Hepatitis A transmitted by food', Clin Infect Dis 38,705-15. food and drug administration (fda) (1998), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 'Guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards for fresh fruits and vegetables [Guidance for Industry]', http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/ prodguid.html (accessed 21st Jan 2004). food and drug administration (fda) (us) (2001), Centre for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 'Analysis and evaluation of preventative control measures for the control/elimination of microbial hazards on fresh and fresh-cut produce', http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov.htlm (accessed 21st Jan 2004). food and drug administration (fda) (2002), 'FDA Survey of Imported Fresh Produce; FY 1999 Field Assignment', http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ prodsur6.html (accessed June 2004). food and drugs administration (fda) (2003), 'FDA Survey of Domestic Fresh Produce; FY 2000/2001 Field Assignment', http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ prodsu10.html (accessed June 2004). francis g a, thomas c and o'beirne d (1999), 'The microbiological safety of minimally processed vegetables', Int J Food Sci Technol 34,1-22. gagliardi j v and karns j s (2002), 'Persistence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in soil and on plant roots', Environ Microbiol 4, 89-96. gallegos e (1998), 'The effects of wastewater irrigation on ground water quality in Mexico'. In Proceedings, 1st Intl Specialized Conference, Water Quality and its Management,Varima C V J, Rao A R G and Kaushish S P (eds),New Delhi, India, Rotterdam, Brookfield (VT);pp 173-81. gandhi m, golding s, yaron s and matthews k r (2001), 'Use of green fluorescent protein expressing Salmonella Stanley to investigate survival, spatial location, and control on alfalfa sprouts', J Food Prot 64,1891-8. gerba c p (1999), 'Virus survival and transport in groundwater', J Ind Microbiol

Biotechnol 22, 535-9. giron j a, ho a s and schoolnik g k (1991), 'An inducible bundle-forming pilus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli', Science 254, 710-13. gordon d m and cowling a (2003), 'The distribution and genetic structure of Escherichia coli in Australian vertebrates: host and geographic effects', Microbiol-SGM 149, 3575-86.

griffin p m and tauxe r v (1991), 'The epidemiology of infections caused by Escherichia coli O157: H7, other enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and the associated hemolytic uremic syndrome', Epidemiol Rev 13, 60-98. guo x, chen j, brackett r e and beuchat l r (2002), 'Survival of Salmonella on tomatoes stored at high relative humidity, in soil, and on tomatoes in contact with soil', J Food Prot 65, 274-9. hallmann j, quadtl-hallmann a, mahafee w f and kloepper j k (1997), 'Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops', Can J Microbiol 43, 895-914. hara-kudo y, konuma h, iwaki m, kasuga f, sugita-konishi y, ito y and kumagai s (1997), 'Potential hazard of radish sprouts as a vehicle of Escherichia coli O157 :H7', J Food Prot 60,1125-7. heisick j e, wagner d e, nierman, m l and peeler j t (1989), 'Listeria spp found on fresh-market produce', Appl Environ Microbiol 55,1925-7. hendrix r w, smith m c, burns r n, ford m e and hatfull g f (1999), 'Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 2192-7. hill s m, phillips a d and walker-smith j a (1991), 'Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and life threatening chronic diarrhoea', Gut 32,154-8. holmberg l, kjellin e, marild s, studahl a and kaijser b (2004), 'EHEC outbreak among staff at a children's hospital - use of PCR for verocytotoxin detection and PFGE for epidemiological investigation', Epidem Infect 132, 43-9. hozore e and alexander m (1991), 'Bacterial characteristics important to rhizos-

phere competance', Soil Biol Biochem 23,717-26. hurd h s, mckean j d, Griffith r d and rostagno m h (2004), 'Estimation of the Salmonella enterica prevalence in finishing swine', Epidemiol Infect 132,127-35. ibekwe a m and grieve c m (2004), 'Changes in developing plant microbial community structure as affected by contaminated water', FEMS Microbiol Ecol 48, 239-48.

ide t, michgehl s, knappstein s, heusipp g and schmidt m a (2003), 'Differential Modulation by Ca2+ of Type III Secretion of Diffusely Adhering Enteropatho-genic Escherichia coli', Infect Immun 71,1725-32. international commission on microbiological specifications for foods (icmsf) (1998), 'Microbial ecology of food commodities', Microorganisms in Foods, London Blackie Academic & Professional, Volume 6. islam m, morgan j, doyle m p and jiang x p (2004a), 'Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in manure compost-amended soil and on carrots and onions grown in an environmentally controlled growth chamber', J Food Prot 67, 574-8. islam m, morgan j, doyle m p, phatak s c, millner p and jiang x p (2004b), 'Fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on carrots and radishes grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water', Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 2497-502. itoh y, sugita-konishi y, kasuga f, iwaki m, hara-kudo y, saito n, noguchi y, konuma h and kumagai s (1998), 'Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: H7 present in radish sprouts', Appl Environ Microbiol, 64,1532-5. jablasone j, warriner k and Griffiths m w (2005), 'Interaction of Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes with a Range of Growing Plants Cultivated in a Gnotobiotic system', Int J Food Microbiol, 99, 7-18.

james e k and olivares f l (1998), 'Infection and colonization of sugarcane and other graminaceous plants by endophytic diazotrophs', Crit Rev Plant Sci 17, 77-119. ji p and wilson m (2002), 'Assessment of the importance of similarity in carbon source utilization profiles between the biological control agent and the pathogen in biological control of bacterial speck of tomato', Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 4383-9.

joce r, sullivan d g, strong c, rowe b, hall m l m and threlfall e j (1990), 'A

national outbreak of Salmonella Gold-Coast', Commun Dis Rep 4, 3-4. johannessen g s, froseth r b, solemdal l, jarp j, wasteson y and rorvik l m (2004), 'Influence of bovine manure as fertilizer on the bacteriological quality of organic Iceberg lettuce', J Appl Microbiol 96, 787-94. johnson r p, clarke r c, wilson j b, read s c, rahn k, renwick r a, sandhu k a, alves d, karmali m a, lior h, mcewen s a, spika j s and gyles c l (1996), 'Growing concerns and recent outbreaks involving non-O157: H7 serotypes of verotoxi-genic Escherichia coli', J Food Prot 59,1112-22. johnson j r, delavari p, kuskowski m and stell a l (2001), 'Phylogenetic distribution of extraintestinal virulence associated traits in Escherichia coli', J Infect Dis 183, 78-88.

jones p w (1980), 'Animal health today - problems of large livestock units. Disease hazards associated with slurry disposal', Br Vet J 136, 529-40. karapinar m and gonul s a (1991), 'Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and

Escherichia coli in spring water', Int J Food Microbiol 13, 315-20. kim h j, lee d s and paik h d (2004), 'Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from raw soybean sprouts', J Food Prot 67,1031-5. kirkham n, adams m, knight a and carter m (2002), 'Uptake of enteric viruses in irrigation water by plants'. In Abstracts from the XIIth International Congress of Virology, International Union of Microbiology Societies, Paris 27th July 2002, 502 pp.

kloepper j w, schippers b and bakker p h a m (1992), 'Proposed elimination of the term endorhizosphere', Phytopathol 82, 726-7. koopmans m and duizer e (2004), 'Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem', Int J

Food Microbiol 90, 23-41. knabel s j, fatemi p, patton j, laborde l f, annous b and sapers g m (2003), 'On farm contamination of horticultural products in the USA and strategies for decontamination', Food Aust 55, 580-4.

koopmans m, vennema h, heersma h, van strien e, van duynhoven y, brown d, reacher m and lopman b (2003), 'Early identification of common-source foodborne virus outbreaks in Europe', Emerg Inf Dis 9,1136-42. kudova i t, hatfield p g and hovde c j (1996), 'Escherichia coli O157: H7 in microbial flora of sheep', J Clin Microbiol 34,431-3. kurdziel a s, wilkinson n, langton s and cook n (2001), 'Survival of poliovirus on soft fruit and salad vegetables', J Food Prot 64, 706-9. lamb t g, tonkyn d w and kluepfel d a (1996), 'Movement of Pseudomonas aureofaciens from the rhizosphere to aerial plant tissue', Can J Microbiol 42, 1112-20.

lee r m and hartman p a (1989), 'Inexpensive, disposable presence-absence test for coliforms and Escherichia coli in water', J Food Prot, 52,162-4. levine m m and edelman r (1984), 'Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of classic serotypes associated with infant diarrhea: epidemiology and pathogenesis', Epidemiol Rev 6, 31-51.

lindow s e and brandl m t (2003),'Microbiology of the phyllosphere', Appl Environ

Microbiol 69, 1875-83. lucas j a (1999), 'Plant immunisation: from myth to SAR', Pesticide Sci 55,193-6. lund b m (1992), 'Ecosystems in vegetable foods', J Appl Bacteriol 73,115S-26S. mahon b e, ponka a, hall w m, komatsu k, dietrich s, sitonen a g, cage g and lambert m (1996), 'An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seed', J Infect Dis 175, 876-82. mcnally a, roe a j, simpson s and thomson-carter f (2001), 'Differences in levels of secreted locus of enterocyte effacement proteins between human disease-associated and bovine Escherichia coli O157', Infect Immun 69, 5107-14. mechie s c, chapman p a and siddons c a (1997), 'A fifteen month study of

Escherichia coli O157 :H7 in a dairy herd', Epidemiol Infect 118,17-25. meng q s and gerba c p (1996), 'Comparative inactivation of enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus and coliphages by ultraviolet irradiation', Water Res 30, 2665-8. mitscherlich e and marth e h (1984), Microbial Survival in the Environment, New

York, Springer-Verlag. monteil h and harfmonteil c (1997), 'Aeromonas infections', Pres Med 26, 1790-2.

montville t j and matthews k r (2001), 'Principles which influence microbial growth, survival, and death in foods'. In Food microbiology: Fundamentals and frontiers, 2nd edn, Doyle M P, Beuchat L R and Montville T J (eds), ASM Press, Washington, DC.

morris c e and monier j m (2003), 'The ecological significance of biofilm formation by plant-associated bacteria', Ann Rev Phytopathol 41,429-53. morris c e, monier j-m and jacques m-a (1998), 'A technique to quantify the population size and composition of the biofilm component in communities of bacteria in the phyllosphere', Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 4789-95. muniesa m, garcia a, miro e, mirelis b, prats g, jofre j and navarro f (2004), 'Bacteriophages and diffusion of beta-lactamase genes', Emerg Infect Dis 10, 1134-7.

national advisory committee on microbiological criteria for foods (nacmcf) (1999), 'Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds', Int J Food Microbiol 52,123-53. ndoye i, de billy f, vasse j, dreyfus b and truchet g (1994), 'Root nodulation of

Sesbania rostrata', J Bacteriol 176,1060-8. newman m a, dow j m and daniels m j (2001), 'Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and plant-pathogen interactions', Eur J Plant Pathol 107, 95-102. o'callaghan k j, dixon r a and cocking e c (2001),'Arabidopsis thaliana: a model for studies of colonization by non-pathogenic and plant-growth-promoting rhi-zobacteria', Aust J Plant Phys 28, 975-82.

okafo c n, umoh v j and galadima m (2003), 'Occurrence of pathogens on vegetables harvested from soils irrigated with contaminated streams', Sci Total Environ 311, 49-56.

olson m e, goh j, philips m, guselle n and mcallister t a (1999) 'Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst survival in water, soil, and cattle feces', J Environ Qual 28,1991-6.

o'mahony m j, cowden b, smyth d, lynch m, hall b, rowe e l, tearle r e, tettmar a s, pamling m, coles r j, kingcott e and bartlett c l r (1990), 'An outbreak of Salmonella Saint-Paul infection associated with bean sprouts', Epidemiol Infect 104, 229-35.

oron g, goemans m, manor y and feyen j (1995), 'Poliovirus distribution in the soil-plant system under reuse of secondary wastewater', Water Res 29,1069-78. peck m w (2002), 'Clostridia and foodborne disease', Microbiol Today 29, 9-13. peterson c a, emanuel m e and humphreys g b (1981), 'Pathway of movement of apoplastic fluorescent dye tracers through the epidermis at the site of secondary root formation in corn (Zea mays) and broad beans (Vicia faba)', Can J Bot 59, 618-25.

petterson s r, teunis p f m and ashbolt n j (2001), 'Modeling virus inactivation on salad crops using microbial count data', Risk anal 21,1067-108. piddock l j v (1999), 'Quinolone resistance and Campylobacter,' Clin Microbiol Infect 5, 239-43.

pleban s, ingel f and chet i (1995), 'Control of rhizoctonia-salani and sclerotium-rolfsillin in the greenhouse using endophytic Bacillus spp', Eur J Plant Pathol 101, 665-72.

ponka a, anderson y, sitonen a, de jong b, johkola m and haikapa o (1995), 'Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts', Lancet 345,462-3. prazak a m, murano e a, mercado i and acuff g r (2002), 'Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes during production and post-harvest processing of cabbage', J Food Prot 65,1728-34. quadt-hallman a, benhamou n and kloepper j w (1997a), 'Bacterial endophytes in cotton: location and interaction with other plant associated bacteria', Can J Microbiol 43, 254-9.

quadt-hallman a, benhamou n and kloepper j w (1997b), 'Bacterial endophytes in cotton: Mechanisms of entering the plant', Can J Microbiol 43, 577-82. rafferty s m, cassells a c and falkiner f r (2003), 'Investigations into the persistence of Escherichia coli endophytically, in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capi-tata L.) and associated alteration in host proteins and chitinase activity', J Food Agric Environ 1, 184-9. rahme l g, ausubel f m and cao h (2000). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 8815-23. reinhold-hurek b and hurek t (1998), 'Life in grasses: diazotrophic endophytes',

Trends Microbiol 6, 139-44. reissinger a, vilich v and sikora r a (2001), 'Detection of fungi in planta: effectiveness of surface sterilization methods', Mycol Res 105, 563-6. richards g p (1999), 'Limitations of molecular biological techniques for assessing the virological safety of foods', J Food Prot 62, 961-7. richards g p (2001), 'Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies', J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 27,117-25. ritchie j m, wagner p l, acheson d w k and waldor m k (2003), 'Comparison of shiga toxin production by hemolytic-uremic syndrome-associated and bovine-associated shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates', Appl Environ Microbiol 69,1059-66. roberts d p, dery p d, yucel i and buyer j s (2000), 'Importance of pfk A for rapid growth of Enterobacter cloacae during colonization of crop seeds', Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 87-91.

roper m m and Marshall k c (1978), 'Effects of clay mineral on microbial predeta-

tion and parasitism on Escherichia coli', Microbiol Ecol 4, 279-89. ryall a l and pentzer w t (1982), Handling, Transportation and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables, Volume 2, Fruits and tree nuts, 2nd edn, Company, Westport, CT, AVI Publishing, pp 426-73. samish z and etinger-tulczynsha r (1962), 'Distribution of bacteria within the tissue of healthy tomatoes', Appl Microbiol 11,7-10. santamaria j and toranzos g a (2003), 'Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review', Int Microbiol 6, 5-9.

santo domingo j w, harmon s and bennett j (2000), 'Survival of Salmonella species in river water', Curr Microbiol 40, 409-17. scipioni a, daube g and thiry e (2000), 'Contamination of food and water by human pathogenic viruses', Ann Med Vet 144, 207-21. seo k h and frank j f (1999), 'Attachment of Escherichia coli O157: H7 to lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatment', J Food Prot 62, 3-9.

sessitsch a, hardarson g, de vos w m and wilson k j (1998), 'Use of marker genes for competition studies of Rhizobium', Plant Soil 204, 35-45. sewell a m and farber j m (2001), 'Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce', J Food Prot 64,1863-77. seymour i j and appleton h (2001), 'Food borne viruses and fresh produce', J Appl

Microbiol 91, 759-73. shelobolina e s, sullivan s a, o'neill k r, nevin k p and lovley d r (2004), 'Isolation, characterization, and U(VI)-reducing potential of a facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium from Low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment and description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov.', Appl Environ Microbiol, 70, 2959-65. shuval h i (1993), 'Investigation of typhoid fever and cholera transmission by raw wastewater irrigation in Santiago, Chile', Water Sci Technol J Int Assoc Water Pollut Res Con 27,167-74. slifko t r, smith h v and rose j b (2000), 'Emerging parasite zoonoses associated with water and food', Int J Parasitol 30,1379-93. smith h r, cheasty t and rowe b (1997), 'Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and outbreaks of gastroenteritis in UK', Lancet 350, 814-15. smith m a (1982), 'Retention of bacteria, viruses and heavy metals on crops irrigated with re-claimed water', Austral Water Resources Council, Canberra, Technical Paper 74, 1-38.

snary e l, kelly l a, davison h c, teale c j and wooldridge m (2004), 'Antimicrobial resistance: a microbial risk assessment perspective', J Antimicrob Chemother 53, 906-17.

solomon e b, yaron s and mathews k r (2002), 'Transmission of Escherichia coli O157: H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalisation', Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 397-400. solomon e b, pang h j and Matthews k r (2003), 'Persistence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 on lettuce plants following spray irrigation with contaminated water', J Food Prot 66, 2198-202. spencer j, smith h r and chart h (1999), 'Characterization of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolated from outbreaks of diarrhoeal disease in England'. Epidem Infect 123, 413-21. Stanley k, Cunningham r and jones k (1998), 'Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from groundwater', J Appl Microbiol 85,187-91. stoltzfus j r, so r, malarvithi p p, ladha j k and debruijn f j (1997), 'Isolation of endophytic bacteria from rice and assessment of their potential for supplying rice with biologically fixed nitrogen', Plant soil, 194, 25-36.

strobel g and daisy b (2003), 'Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products', Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 67, 491-502. sturz a v, Christie b r and matheson b g (1998), 'Associations of bacterial endo-phyte populations from red clover and potato crops with potential for beneficial allelopathy', Can J Microbiol 44,162-7. sturz a v, Christie b r and nowak j (2000), 'Bacterial endophytes: Potential role in developing sustainable systems of crop production', Crit Rev Plant Sci 19,1-30. sturz a v and nowak j (2000), 'Endophytic communities of rhizobacteria and the strategies required to create yield enhancing associations with crops', Appl Soil Ecol 15, 183-90.

surette m a, sturz a v, lada r r and nowak j (2003), 'Bacterial endophytes in processing carrots (Daucus carota L. var. sativus): their localization, population density, biodiversity and their effects on plant growth', Plant Soil 253, 38190.

takayanagui o m, febronio l h p, bergamini a m, okino m h t, silva a, castro a m c, Santiago r, capuano d m, oliveira m a and takayanagui a m m (2000), 'Monitoring of lettuce crops of Ribeirao Preto, SP', Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33,169-74. takeuchi k and frank j f (2000), 'Penetration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce tissues as affected by inoculum size and temperature and the effect of chlorine treatment on cell viability', J Food Prot 63, 434-40. tan r x and zou w x (2001), 'Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites',

Nat Prod Rep 18, 448-59. taormina p j and beuchat l r (1999), 'Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: H7 on alfalfa seeds', J Food Prot 62, 318-24.

tarr p i and neill, m a (1996), 'Perspective: The problem of non-O157:H7 shiga toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli', J Infect Dis 174, 1136-9.

tauxe r v (1992), 'Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in the United States and other industrialized nations'. In Campylobacter jejuni: Current status and future trends, Nachamkin I, Mlaser M J and Tompkins L S (eds), Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology, pp 9-19. tauxe r v (1997), 'Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge', Emerg Infect Dis, 3, 425-34. tauxe r v (2004), 'Salad and pseudoappendicitis: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a foodborne pathogen', J Infect Dis, 189, 761-3. terzieva s i and mcfeters g a (1991), 'Survival and injury of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia enterocolitica in stream water', Can J Microbiol 37, 785-90.

theron j and cloete t e (2002), 'Emerging waterborne infections: contributing factors, agents, and detection tools', Crit Rev Microbiol 28,1-26. tierney j t, sullivan r and larkin e p (1977), 'Persistence of poliovirus in soil and on vegetables grown on soil previously flooded with inoculated sewage sludge or effluent', Appl Environ Microbiol 33,109-13. troxler j, berling c h, moenne-loccoz y, keel c and defago g (1997), 'Interactions between the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHAO and Thielaviop-sis basicola in tobacco roots observed by immunofluorescent microscopy', Plant Pathology 46, 62-71.

us department of agriculture (usda), national agricultural statistics service (2001), 'Fruit and Vegetable Agricultural Practices - 1999'. http://usda.gov/ nass/pubs/rpts106.htm. Accessed 2003 Dec 20. van renterghem b, huysman f, rygole r and verstraete w (1991), 'Detection and prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the agricultural ecosystem', J Appl Bacteriol 71, 211-17.

vaz da costa-vargas s m, mara d d and vargas-lopez c e (1991), 'Residual faecal contamination on effluent-irrigated lettuces', Water Sci Tech 24, 89-94. vernozy-rozand c, montet m p and ray-gueniot s (2002), 'E-coli O157: H7 in water:

a public health problem', Rev Med Vet 153, 235-42. viswanathan p and kaur r (2001), 'Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts', Int J Hyg Environ Health 203, 205-13. wachtel m r, whiteland l c and mandrell r e (2002a), 'Association of Escherichia coli O157: H7 with pre-harvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water', J Food Prot 65,18-25. wachtel m r, whiteland l c and mandrell r e (2002b), 'Prevalence of Escherichia coli associated with a cabbage crop inadvertently irrigated with partially treated sewage wastewater', J Food Prot 65, 471-5. wang g d and doyle m p (1998), 'Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

O157: H7 in water', J Food Prot, 61, 662-7. wang g, zhao t and doyle m p (1996), 'Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

O157:H7 in bovine feces', Appl Environ Microbiol, 62, 2567-70. warriner k, ibrahim f, dickinson m, wright c and waites w m (2003a), 'Internalisation of human pathogens within growing salad vegetables', Rev Mol Biol Biotechnol 20,117-34. warriner k, ibrahim f, dickinson m, wright c and waites w m (2003b), 'Interaction of Escherichia coli with growing salad spinach plants', J Food Prot 66,1790-7. warriner k, spaniolas s, dickinson m, wright c and waites w m (2003c), 'Interaction of Bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with growing bean sprouts', J Appl Microbiol 95, 719-27. watanabe t, sano d and omura t (2002), 'Risk evaluation for pathogenic bacteria and viruses in sewage sludge compost', Water Sci Technol 46, 325-30. weissinger w r and beuchat l r (2000), 'Comparison of aqueous chemical treatments to eliminate Salmonella on alfalfa seeds', J Food Prot 63,1475-82. weller d m (1988), 'Biological control of soil borne plant pathogens in the rhizos-

phere with bacteria', Ann Rev Phytopathol 26, 379-407. wells j m and butterfield j e (1997), 'Salmonella contamination associated with bacterial soft rot of fresh fruits and vegetables in the market place', Plant Dis 81, 867-72.

white g c (1972), Handbook of Chlorination, White G C (ed.), New York, Van Nos-

trand Reinhold 96 pp. whittam t s (1989), 'Clonal dynamics of Escherichia coli in its natural habitat', Ant van Leeuw J Microbiol 55, 23-32. Wiedmann m (2003), 'ADSA foundation scholar award - An integrated science-based approach to dairy food safety: Listeria monocytogenes as a model system', J Dairy Sci 86,1865-75. Wilson d (1995), 'Endophyte-the evolution of a term and classification of its use and definition', Oikos 73, 274-6. Wilson k j, huges s g and jefferson r a (1992), 'The Escherichia coli gus operon, induction and expression of the gus operon in E. coli and the occurrence and use of GUS in other bacteria'. In GUS Protocols, Using the GUS gene as a Reporter of Gene Expression, Gallagher S.R. (ed), Academic Press, New York, pp 7-23.

winfield m d and groisman e a (2003), 'Role of nonhost environments in the lifestyles of Salmonella and Escherichia coli'. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 3678-94.

wu s x and peng r q (1992), 'Studies on an outbreak of neonatal diarrhea caused by EPEC O127: H6 with plasmid analysis restriction analysis and outer membrane protein determination', Acta Paediatr Scand 81, 217-21.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment