C. botulinum are rod-shaped cells (2-22 |im long and 0.5-2 |im wide), motile by perithricous flagella and capable of forming subterminal endospores, which confer on the rods the peculiar shape of a closter—Greek for spindle (Fig. 1). The location of spores within the cell and the level of spore production vary by strain. Spores, the most resistant bacterial forms existing in nature, allow the survival of the microorganism under restrictive environmental conditions, such as chemical-physical shocks and/or decreased availability of nutrients. Gram stain results are positive due to the thickness of the cell wall, mainly constituted by peptidoglycan of the meso-diaminopimelic acid direct-linked type, and to the lack of the outer envelope proper of gram-negative microorganisms.
Was this article helpful?
When people generally think about anti-aging, they tend to think about the visible signs of wear and tear, those tell-tale wrinkles, age spots and their developing jowls. No-one wants to get old, let alone feel and look older than their years and anti-aging treatments are becoming so sought after by both men and women that the skincare market is colossal, but what really works?