Morphology

C. botulinum are rod-shaped cells (2-22 |im long and 0.5-2 |im wide), motile by perithricous flagella and capable of forming subterminal endospores, which confer on the rods the peculiar shape of a closter—Greek for spindle (Fig. 1). The location of spores within the cell and the level of spore production vary by strain. Spores, the most resistant bacterial forms existing in nature, allow the survival of the microorganism under restrictive environmental conditions, such as chemical-physical shocks and/or decreased availability of nutrients. Gram stain results are positive due to the thickness of the cell wall, mainly constituted by peptidoglycan of the meso-diaminopimelic acid direct-linked type, and to the lack of the outer envelope proper of gram-negative microorganisms.

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Anti-Aging Report

Anti-Aging Report

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