101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Decision integrates epidemiology with many other lines of evidence, however, a given amount of epidemiologic evidence may be sufficient for some purposes and insufficient for others. That is, the definition of sufficient epidemiologic evidence is specific to the situation, depending on the weight of other factors promoting or discouraging the different policy options. For a given level of epidemiologic evidence, extraneous considerations define whether the balance tips in favor of one action or another. In a simple illustration, assume the epidemio-logic evidence of potential adverse effects is identical for two food additives, one of which prevents life-threatening microbial contamination and the other merely enhances the visual appeal of the product. The epidemiologic evidence could be appropriately viewed as insufficient to warrant elimination of the first product but sufficient to warrant elimination of the second, but what really differs is the competing considerations outside of...
Besides the amount of Ca in the diet, the absorption of dietary Ca in foods is also a critical factor in determining the availability of Ca for bone development and maintenance. Thus, and because dietary factors that alter Ca absorption also modify Ca retention,54 there is a need to identify food components and or functional food ingredients that may enhance Ca absorption in order to optimise Ca bioavailability from foods.54,55 As stated by Weaver and Liebman
Netically modified microbes are used for the production of food additives such as amino acid supplements, sweeteners, flavors, vitamins, and thickening agents. In some cases, these substances had to be obtained from slaughtered animals. Altered organisms are also used for improving fermentation processes in the food industry.
The possible use of the biomarkers of bone turnover in the substantiation of health claims for functional foods or functional food ingredients has been evaluated recently by one of the Individual Theme Groups (i.e., ITGB) in the EU-funded concerted action Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods (PASSCLAIM QLK1-2000-00086). The conclusions of that evaluation are 3
As discussed in the introduction of this chapter, the defense functions of the body are multiple, involving different organs, different mechanisms, and targeting different potential aggressors. The body is thus well protected, and in a healthy individual these multiple defense functions should exert an efficient protection. However, genetic predispositions, aging, stress, as well as lack of sufficient physical activity and unbalanced diet are all factors that are likely to weaken these functions and consequently create conditions for increased sensitivity to external aggressions both chemical and biological. It is one of the main objectives of functional food science to identify food components that have the capacity to positively modulate defense functions so as to help individuals strengthen, restore, or rebalance these functions. This chapter has shown that inulin-type fructans are classified among the potential functional food ingredients capable of playing such roles. As reviewed...
Can inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila and can be useful food additives, serving to eliminate or retard bacterial growth in, for example, cooked ready-to-eat meat and other foods (117). Many plant extracts, classified as GRAS (generally recognized as safe), possess antimicrobial effects. Extracts like plant essential oils, food flavoring compounds, and menthol should be more thoroughly investigated for their effectiveness in inhibiting growth of Aeromonas spp. in various foods. Basil methyl chavicol (BMC) seems to be bactericidal to A. hydrophila (118). Another natural product, chitosan, known to inhibit growth of Aeromonas spp. and other pathogens, extends the shelf life of oysters at 5 C for up to 7 days (119). Finally, the increasing number of reports on Aeromonas spp. as human-, food-, and waterborne organisms mean that further epidemiological studies together with new taxonomic data on genospecies and on aeromonad pathogenicity are needed to elucidate the public health significance of...
As early as 1949, Spoehr and Milner (8) suggested that mass culture of microalgae would help to overcome the global protein shortages. The basis for their optimism was that algae had crude protein content in excess of 50 , and biomass productivity of the order of 25 tons ha yr. Moreover, N- and P-rich wastewaters are also viewed as a valuable substrate for cultivation of algae (9). The cultivation of algae in wastewaters offers the combined advantages of treating the wastewaters and simultaneously producing algal biomass, which can further be exploited for protein complements and food additives (for aquaculture, animal and human feed), energies such as biogas and fuels, agriculture (fertilizers and soil conditioners), pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and other valuable chemicals (10).
Inulin-type fructans could be effective food ingredients to be included in this type of strategy, and a series of experiments have been performed both in rats and mice to test this hypothesis.220 In a first series of experiments the end-points were the preneoplastic lesions or intermediate endpoints, i.e., the aberrant crypt foci (ACF), induced chemically in the rat colon, a model that has been widely applied to study chemopre-vention of colon carcinogenesis.221-223 ACF are histological abnormal thickening of the wall in the pericarp of the colon crypts that can be stained and counted in the colon mucosa. It is believed that a few of these preneoplastic lesions develop into malignant adenocarcinomas, but most of the ACF are eliminated by repair mechanisms and only a few of them (mainly those with high numbers of aberrant crypts per foci) develop into tumors and cancers. A few of these experiments have thus targeted not only ACF
In a high molecular form in tea (tannins) but polyphenols are also present in vegetables, legumes and condiments. Phytates, which constitute 1-2 by weight of many cereals, nuts and legumes, also inhibit dietary iron bioavailability, probably due to the complexation of iron to form di-and tetraferric phytates, which are poor sources of iron. Other inhibitors of non-haem iron absorption are thought to be wheat bran and other components of dietary fibre complexes, calcium and phosphorus acting together, perhaps due to the formation of poorly available calcium-phosphate-iron complexes, and dietary protein particularly from soy beans, nuts and lupines.
At the end of this book it can be concluded that inulin-type fructans are functional food ingredients. Particularly over the last two decades, extensive scientific research has investigated their effects on target functions in the body, demonstrating benefits that are relevant to health and that justify human-intervention nutrition studies including clinical trials on reduction of disease risks. In term of perspectives, the future in research on inulin-type fructans as functional food ingredients relies in the progress in understanding these interactions prokaryotes-eukaryotes (crosstalk). Data will certainly continue to accumulate in the different areas covered by different chapters in this book with the aim to support more claims, and more data will be available that will allow better understanding of the mechanisms of action. Even though all inulin-type fructans have probably the same pattern of activities, quantitative differences in their efficacy in specific functions will be...
Activities such as walking, swimming, digesting food, or any other activity performed by an animal require fuel in the form of chemical energy. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's energy currency, is produced by the cellular oxidation of small molecules, such as sugars obtained from food. Cells usually metabolize carbohydrates or fats as fuel sources however, when these carbon sources are in short supply, cells will utilize proteins. The energy content of food is usually measured in kilocalories, and it should be noted that the term calories listed on food labels is actually
The descriptors 'hydrogenated' and 'partially hydrogenated' on food labels are often used interchangeably but both indicate the presence of TFA in the processed vegetable oil used to prepare the food. For the sake of accuracy, in oil that is fully hydrogenated (i.e. the unsaturated fatty acids have all been converted to stearic acid), there are no trans unsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fats that are partially hydrogenated have variable amounts of TFA depending on the extent of hydrogenation.
Simulated Vinegar One way to make vinegar (not the preferred way) is to prepare a solution of acetic acid, the sole acid component of vinegar, at the proper pH (see Fig. 2-15) and add appropriate flavoring agents. Acetic acid (Mr 60) is a liquid at 25 C, with a density of 1.049 g mL. Calculate the volume that must be added to distilled water to make 1 L of simulated vinegar (see Fig. 2-16).
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