Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. Read more...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary


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Biosynthesis of Starch and Sucrose

During active photosynthesis in bright light, a plant leaf produces more carbohydrate (as triose phosphates) than it needs for generating energy or synthesizing precursors. The excess is converted to sucrose and transported to other parts of the plant, to be used as fuel or stored. In most plants, starch is the main storage form, but in a few plants, such as sugar beet and sugarcane, sucrose is the primary storage form. The synthesis of sucrose and starch occurs in different cellular compartments (cytosol and plastids, respectively), and these processes are coordinated by a variety of regulatory mechanisms that respond to changes in light level and photosynthetic rate.

UDPGlucose Is the Substrate for Sucrose Synthesis in the Cytosol of Leaf Cells

Most of the triose phosphate generated by CO2 fixation in plants is converted to sucrose (Fig. 20-25) or starch. In the course of evolution, sucrose may have been selected as the transport form of carbon because of its unusual linkage between the anomeric C-1 of glucose and the anomeric C-2 of fructose. This bond is not hydrolyzed by amylases or other common carbohydrate-cleaving

Leptin Deficiency And Appetite Control

However, for certain individuals very low levels of leptin (or the absence of leptin) may constitute a major risk factor. Recently a number of individuals have come to light. For example, two young cousins have been studied who displayed marked hyper-phagia from a very early age. This hyperphagia took the form of a constant hunger accompanied by food cravings and a continuous demand for food (17). The eldest of the two cousins had reached a body weight of more than 90 kg by the age of 9. Her serum leptin level (like that of the cousin) was very low, and subsequently a mutation in the gene for leptin was revealed. This finding seems to implicate leptin (OB protein) in the control of the drive for food that is, in the expression of hunger and active food seeking rather than with satiety or the short-term inhibition over eating. Leptin therefore appears to modulate the tonic signal associated with the translation of need into drive when leptin levels are low or absent then the drive is...

Selected Metabolic Aspects Of Diabetesg

A lay person would describe diabetes as too much sugar in the blood. So would most medical students and physicians. However, hyperglycemia is simply the tip of the iceberg, albeit one of profound pathogenetic impact. Type 2 diabetes is, in fact, a syndrome in which resistance to insulin in peripheral tissues is present for years, if not decades, before hyperglycemia becomes evident. As compensatory pancreatic secretory mechanisms in response to the insulin resistance begin to fail, relative and

Separation of Nucleic Acids

In the laboratory, an agarose gel is prepared by dissolving agarose powder in a buffer solution (a salt solution) and heating to boiling. The viscous solution formed is then cooled and poured into a casting tray. A plastic-toothed comb is inserted in the melted agarose at the top. The agarose is allowed to solidify in the tray into a gelatinous slab and is then submerged into a buffer solution in a horizontal chamber. The buffer functions as a conductor of electricity through the agarose gel. After the gel is submerged, the comb is carefully removed, thereby creating a row of wells in the gel slab. The wells are then loaded with a sample consisting of a mixture of DNA fragments, sucrose or glycerol, and a blue dye. Sucrose sinks the DNA sample into the wells, while the dye marks the migration of the invisible DNA fragments through the gel. In order to establish an electric field in the chamber, a constant electric current from a power supply is generated between the electrodes at both...

The Start Of A Collaboration

Therefore we began trying to purify and concentrate the virus to escape the toxicity and to obtain antigen of sufficient potency to develop antisera in rabbits and guinea pigs. The lipids in white matter presented a real challenge. How could we free the virus from that mass of myelin lipid and cell membranes It became a matter of trial and error and using any clues available from the work of other investigators. Many techniques were tried, including genetron extraction and centrifuging to a pellet through 5-20 sucrose, but we eventually settled on one that started with homogenizing the tissue in a mortar or a blender. It was then sonicated and treated with sodium deoxycholate and trypsin and subjected to differential centrifugation. Supernatant fluid from a final low-speed centrifugation was diluted to the equivalent of a 10 tissue extract in buffered saline. Extracts of diseased tissue and normal human brain tissue prepared in this way were used in...

Occurrence of Fructans in Fungi10

Fructans accumulate in various species of aspergillus, but some species also synthesize it extracellularly from sucrose. Especially, it has been reported that Aspergillis sydowi synthesizes an inulin that has a molecular weight greater than that of plant inulin. However, fructan has not been demonstrated in penicillium, pestalotiopsis, myrothecium, or trichoderma. This observation correlates well with the fact that sucrose has not been confirmed as a fungal carbohydrate. Indeed, the most characteristic endogenous disaccharide of all fungal groups is trehalose (1-1-di-glucose).

Regulatory Enzymes 225

There are two fundamental conditions for life. First, the living entity must be able to self-replicate (a topic considered in Part III) second, the organism must be able to catalyze chemical reactions efficiently and selectively. The central importance of catalysis may surprise some beginning students of biochemistry, but it is easy to demonstrate. As described in Chapter 1, living systems make use of energy from the environment. Many of us, for example, consume substantial amounts of sucrose common table sugar as a kind of fuel, whether in the form of sweetened foods and drinks or as sugar itself. The conversion of sucrose to CO2 and H2O in the presence of oxygen is a highly exergonic process, releasing free energy that we can use to think, move, taste, and see. However, a bag of sugar can remain on the shelf for years without any obvious conversion to CO2 and H2O. Although this chemical process is thermodynamically favorable, it is very slow Yet when sucrose is consumed by a human...

Monosaccharides Are Reducing Agents

T Monosaccharides can be oxidized by relatively mild oxidizing agents such as ferric (Fe3+) or cupric (Cu2+) ion (Fig. 7-10a). The carbonyl carbon is oxidized to a carboxyl group. Glucose and other sugars capable of reducing ferric or cupric ion are called reducing sugars. This property is the basis of Fehling's reaction, a qualitative test for the presence of reducing sugar. By measuring the amount of oxidizing agent reduced by a solution of a sugar, it is also possible to estimate the concentration of that sugar. For many years this test was used to detect and measure elevated glucose levels in blood and urine in the diagnosis of dia-

Inulintype Fructans As Nondigestible Oligosaccharides Ndos

The enzymes that decompose starch, lactose, or sucrose cannot hydrolyze the osidic linkages in chicory inulin and oligofructose. Indeed, the specific hydrolytic activity of these enzymes is on -(1 4) or eventually -(1 6) linkages whereas inulin and oligofructose have almost exclusively (1i2) and a very few (6 ,,*2) linkages. Demonstrating that inulin and oligofructose are indeed nondigestible in vivo in humans is not an easy task because measuring in vivo digestion of any substance in the stomach and small bowel is difficult. The methodologies and their results (Table 4.1) are reviewed in the next section.

Immunological Isolation of H2DM Compartments From TEC Lines

Remove the 0.02 EDTA and rinse with 4 mL of 0.25 M sucrose solution. 5. Remove the 0.25 M sucrose solution and replace with 0.8 mL of 0.25 M sucrose solution containing a protease inhibitor (1 mM PMSF, 0.1 mM TPCK, 10 g mL of aprotinin, 0.1 mM leupeptin). 8. Put 0.8 mL of 0.25 M sucrose solution containing protease inhibitors into the dishes, and scrape the cells again. 9. Transfer the cell suspension into a 15-mL test tube and homogenize the cells by passing 1.6 mL of the 0.25 M sucrose solution 20 times through a 23-gauge needle, attached to a disposable 1-mL plastic syringe.

Play a key role in the digestion of food and in the uptake and release of fatty acids by tissues

Seeds that contain lipid may have as much as 80 of their dry weight represented by triacylglycerols. Plants such as soybean face two particular problems in using such energy reserves. First, these plants have to mobilize the lipid rapidly and break it down to useful products. This overall process involves the synthesis of degradative enzymes as well as the production of the necessary membranes and organelles that are the sites of such catabolism. Secondly, plants with lipid-rich seeds must be able to form water-soluble carbohydrates (mainly sucrose) from the lipid as a supply of carbon to the rapidly elongating stems and roots. Animals are unable to convert lipid into carbohydrate (Fig. 3.9) because of the decarboxylation reactions of the Krebs (tricarboxylic acid) cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase). Thus, for every two carbons entering the Krebs cycle from lipid as acetyl-CoA, two carbons are lost as C02. In plants, these decarboxylations are avoided by...

How Genotype Controls Phenotype

What is the difference between the smooth seed allele and the wrinkled seed one The smooth pea phenotype (RR or Rr) produces an enzyme allowing the seeds to accumulate high levels of starch. Seeds with the rr genotype do not produce a functional form of that enzyme and so have high levels of sucrose rather than starch. The sucrose in the rr seeds causes them to absorb water during development. When they dry, they lose that water and shrivel. The RR and Rr seeds have lower levels of sucrose and do not absorb as much water during development consequently, they do not shrivel when they dry. Recent molecular genetic studies have revealed that the r allele produces a defective enzyme because it has had an 800-nucleotide piece of DNA inserted into the gene. As you might expect, compared to the normal allele, transcription and translation of the allele carrying this insert produces a much different (and, in this case, nonfunctional) protein. How did the insert get there The best guess is...

Fat Intake And Adiposity In Children

These findings strongly support an environmental impact of the habitual diet upon the development ofweight gain and obesity. However, the data could also suggest a biological influence over the preferences for those high fat foods which form part of the habitual diet. This scenario, which focuses attention on the energy intake side of the energy balance equation, should not obscure the role of physical activity and energy expenditure. One major factor in the ever-increasing frequency of sedentary behaviours is television viewing. In a representative cohort of 746 youths aged 10-15 years there was a strong dose-response relationship between the prevalence of overweight and the hours of television viewed (35). The incidence of obesity was 8.3 times greater in those youths watching more than 5 hours of television per day compared with those watching 0 to 2 hours. As is the case with adults (36), overweight in children appears to be strongly influenced by the environmental factors of low...

Historical Perspective

In 1971, the ADA's nutrition recommendations for diabetes management called for a moderate carbohydrate intake of approximately 45 of total calories, 20 of calories from protein, and 35 from fat. Diabetic patients were encouraged to avoid sucrose and concentrated sweets however, little emphasis was placed on the amount of protein and both total and saturated fat included in the diet. In 1986, the ADA's nutrition recommendations were revised to encourage a carbohydrate intake of approximately 60 of calories, along with reductions in protein and fat intake to 12-20 and less than 30 of total calories, respectively. The amount of protein and fat recommended in the meal plan was decreased to limit the risk of cardiac and renal complications of diabetes. Patients with diabetes were also encouraged to consume a diet high in fiber and to limit their intake of sucrose and foods that contained sugar (2). In 1994, the ADA significantly revised its nutrition recommendations for diabetes...

Evidence Linking Fat To Obesity

Increased following ingestion of a high fat diet (20-22). In addition, a number of studies have suggested that appetite control is dissociated from fat since energy intake of a subsequent meal was not suppressed by adding up to 60 g fat (2.3 MJ) to the previous meal (for review see Astrup and Raben (19)). Likewise, one study demonstrated that 2-year maintenance of weight loss was more successful on an ad libitum low fat diet than on calorie counting (23). Finally, randomized dietary fat intervention studies consistently show that weight is lost on a calorically unrestricted low fat diet, although rates of weight loss per day are modest (ranges between 17 g and 37 g per day) (18).

Evidence Unlinking Fat From Obesity

Genetic susceptibility for weight gain may be influenced by dietary factors, such as fat intake (46). Indeed, a few studies have indicated that development of obesity is, in part, due to differential effects of fat in the diet for those who are genetically predisposed, compared to those who are not (47-49). In this context, studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that food intake seems to play a specific role for obesity development in association with a predisposition to obesity (37,50,51). For instance, Sclefani and Assimon (52) found that obesity prone mice ate more high fat, but less sugar-rich foods than leanness prone mice. In addition, obesity prone mice have been found to gain weight at a much faster rate than wild-type mice fed the same high fat diets (50), suggesting a gene-environment interaction between the high fat diet and the subsequent weight gain. Furthermore, compared to non-obese controls, impaired ability to increase the fat carbohydrate oxidation...


Salmonellae are facultative, gram-negative, motile bacilli that ferment glucose but not lactose or sucrose. Salmonellae are able to utilize citrate as a sole carbon source where other genera require a more complex source of this nutrient. All salmonellae, with the exception of Salmonella typhi,

One Gene One Polypeptide

One Gene One Polypeptide

The roles of enzymes in biochemistry were being described at this time, and it occurred to Beadle and Tatum that the expression of a gene as phenotype could occur through an enzyme. They experimented with the bread mold Neu-rospora crassa. The nuclei in the body of this mold are haploid (n), as are its reproductive spores. (This fact is important because it means that even recessive mutant alleles are easy to detect in experiments.) Beadle and Tatum grew Neurospora on a minimal nutritional medium containing sucrose, minerals, and a vitamin. Using this medium, the enzymes of wild-type Neurospora could catalyze the metabolic reactions needed to make all the chemical constituents of their cells, including proteins. These wild-type strains are called pro-totrophs ( original eaters ).

Monitoring and Managing Common Adverse Reactions

However, even minor adverse drug reactions can be distressing to the patient, especially when they persist for a long time. Therefore, when possible, the nurse should relieve minor adverse reactions with simple nursing measures. For example, the nurse can assist the patient with dry mouth by giving frequent sips of water or by allowing the patient to suck on a piece of hard candy (provided that the patient does not have diabetes or is not on a special diet that limits sugar intake) to relieve a dry mouth. The nurse can help relieve a patient's constipation by encouraging increased fluid intake, unless extra fluids are contraindicated. The primary care provider also may order a laxative or stool softener. It is important for the nurse to maintain a daily record of bowel elimination. The nurse can help the patient minimize certain gastrointestinal side effects, such as anorexia, diarrhea, and constipation by administering drugs at a specific time in relation to meals, with food, or with...

Isolation And Identification

Suspected salmonellae isolates are subjected to a series of biochemical tests (Table 2) for further confirmation (7,15). These tests include glucose, lysine decarboxylase, hydrogen sulfide, urease, indole, Voges-Proskauer, citrate, methyl red, motility, failure to ferment sucrose or lactose, and growth in KCN broth. Once an isolate is confirmed as Salmonella, serological testing can be completed. Commercial preparations of Salmonella O, H, and Vi antibodies are available. Generally, Phenol red sucrose broth

Adhesionblockade effect

The ability of LF to inhibit in vivo colonization of E. coli has been examined (Naidu et al., unpublished). Infection with E. coli strain F18 was established in streptomycin-treated mice by gastric intubation and bacterial excretion was estimated as colony forming units per gram (CFU g) feces. The excretion of strain F18 in feces reached a steady-state (108 CFU g) within 7 days, independent of challenge (dose 8 x 108 or 103 CFU). Oral administration of bLF (20 mg ml in 20 sucrose solution) caused a 1- to 3-log reduction in CFU g feces with high and low dosages of strain F18. The bacterial multiplication in vivo was markedly affected during the early 24 hours of infection, reflecting 3-log lower number of bacteria in the feces (2 x 103 CFU g) than the control group. Oral administration of LF prior to infection reduced fecal excretion of E. coli from mouse intestine. In vitro effects of bLF on the molecular interactions of E. coli with subepithelial matrix proteins were examined. Bovine...

Catabolite repression of the lac operon positive control

The other condition is that glucose cannot be present in the cell's environment. Because the cell can capture more energy from the breakdown of glucose than it can from the breakdown of other sugars, it is more efficient for the cell to metabolize glucose rather than lactose. Thus, mechanisms have evolved that prevent the cell from synthesizing the enzymes for lactose metabolism when lactose and glucose are present together. The repression of the transcription of lactose-metabolizing genes in the presence of glucose is an example of catabo-lite repression. The transcription of proteins necessary for the metabolism of many different sugars is similarly repressed in the presence of glucose. We shall see that catabolite repression works through an activator protein.

Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Extensively on the societal factors which have accompanied or induced the changes leading to the New World syndrome, and which have led to identification of obesity as a global epidemic (25). The WHO Report cited such components of modernization as the development of market economies, reliance on imported non-traditional foods, increasing urbanization, changing occupational structures, increasing socioeconomic status, increases in animal fat and animal protein intake, decreases in vegetable fat and vegetable protein intake, reduction in total and specifically complex carbohydrates, and increases in sugar intake. The net effect of these factors might be viewed as providing an unrestrained environment in which genetic potential becomes fully expressed. Alternatively, the environment may be interacting in such a way as to be detrimental to 'normal' gene expression.

Box 142 The World Of Biochemistry

The brewer next prepares the wort, the nutrient medium required for fermentation by yeast cells. The malt is mixed with water and then mashed or crushed. This allows the enzymes formed in the malting process to act on the cereal polysaccharides to form maltose, glucose, and other simple sugars, which are soluble in the aqueous medium. The remaining cell matter is then separated, and the liquid wort is boiled with hops to give flavor. The wort is cooled and then aerated. sis in skeletal muscle returns to the liver and is converted to glucose, which moves back to muscle and is converted to glycogen a circuit called the Cori cycle (Box 14-1 see also Fig. 23-18). In plant seedlings, stored fats and proteins are converted, via paths that include gluconeogenesis, to the disaccharide sucrose for transport throughout the developing plant. Glucose and its derivatives are precursors for the synthesis of plant cell walls, nucleotides and coenzymes, and a variety of other essential metabolites....

Principles Of Metabolic Regulation Glucose And Glycogen

Is convenient (and perhaps essential) in writing a textbook to divide metabolic processes into pathways that play discrete roles in the cell's economy, no such separation exists inside the cell. Rather, each of the pathways we discuss in this book is inextricably intertwined with all the other cellular pathways in a multidimensional network of reactions (Fig. 15-1). For example, in Chapter 14 we discussed three possible fates for glucose 6-phosphate in a hepatocyte passage into glycolysis for the production of ATP, passage into the pentose phosphate pathway for the production of NADPH and pentose phosphates, or hydrolysis to glucose and phosphate to replenish blood glucose. In fact, glucose 6-phos-phate has a number of other possible fates it may, for example, be used to synthesize other sugars, such as glucosamine, galactose, galactosamine, fucose, and neu-raminic acid, for use in protein glycosylation, or it may be partially degraded to provide acetyl-CoA for fatty acid and sterol...

Production of AcetylCoA Activated Acetate

In aerobic organisms, glucose and other sugars, fatty acids, and most amino acids are ultimately oxidized to CO2 and H2O via the citric acid cycle and the respiratory chain. Before entering the citric acid cycle, the carbon skeletons of sugars and fatty acids are degraded to the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA, the form in which the cycle accepts most of its fuel input. Many amino acid carbons also enter the cycle this way, although several amino acids are degraded to other cycle intermediates. Here we focus on how pyruvate, derived from glucose

Translocation of Substances in the Phloem

Substances in the phloem move from sources to sinks. A source is an organ (such as a mature leaf or a storage root) that produces (by photosynthesis or by digestion of stored reserves) more sugars than it requires. A sink is an organ (such as a root, a flower, a developing fruit or tuber, or an immature leaf) that consumes sugars for its own growth and storage needs. Sugars (primarily sucrose), amino acids, some

Treatment of Iron Deficiency

In developed countries the physician is only allowed to even consider treatment of iron deficiency if its cause is diagnosed, or proper further evaluation is initiated. Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia is rather simple and inexpensive in most subjects and entails oral treatment with ferrous salts. Despite lower absorption of iron, there is renewed interest in therapeutic use of ferric maltose, suggesting that a large influx of Fe(II) from therapeutic doses may cause oxidative damage (Fodor and Marx, 1988 Geisser, 1998). Although treatment failure mostly results from an inadequate dose, persistent blood loss which exceeds iron absorption and poor compliance, failure may also be the result of malabsorption. The cause may be bowel inflammation in the duodenal region, coeliac disease or a genetic defect of one of the proteins involved in intestinal iron absorption. In these patients, parenteral treatment is needed with iron-sucrose or iron-dextran complexes (the latter is not...

Caveolin Expression and Localization in the Cell

Subcellular fractionation, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy with immunogold labeling methods have each been used to examine the localization of caveolin-1 in different tissues. Early studies isolated caveolae and lipid rafts based on the resistance of these cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains to solubilization in cold buffers containing Triton X-100 detergent and the light buoyancy of the fractions on sucrose gradients. A nondetergent methods was developed that is based on sequential density gradient centrifugation, in which the plasma membrane is first isolated, after which the caveolae and noncaveolae domains are separated on a second density gradient. An analysis of the purity and enrichment of the final caveolae fraction showed that this method yields a high-purity fraction, enriched in caveolae, and containing minimal contaminants ( 5 ) from other organelle fractions 16 . In contrast, when detergents such as 0.1 Triton X-100 are used with density...

Intraperitoneal Liposome Administration for Cancer Therapy

The effect of liposome size has been evaluated as a method to increase the retention of liposome-encapsulated drugs within the peritoneum. It appears that making liposomes larger does not increase the retention of liposome-encapsulated drugs in the peritoneum or within lymph nodes that receive drainage from the peritoneum. Hirono and Hunt have performed a detailed study on the effect of liposome size ranging from 48 to 720 nm on subsequent distribution after intraperitoneal administration (3). In their studies, 50 to 60 of the intraperitoneal dose of liposomes of varying sizes encapsulating carbon-14 (14C) labeled-sucrose cleared from the peritoneum by five hours in all liposomes studied. The greatest amount of 14C-sucrose ( 40 ) appeared in the urine after administration of the largest 720-nm liposomes. The authors speculated that the large 460- and 720-nm liposomes were unstable in the peritoneum so that they rapidly released their encapsulated

Mechanisms Of Postcessation Weight Gain

In addition to short-term increases in total energy intake, smoking cessation has been associated with changes in specific components of dietary intake. Selective increases in dietary fat (56), carbohydrates (57), sucrose (56,58), and alcohol (41) have been observed following smoking cessation. Overall, increases in dietary intake after smoking cessation appear to be due to between-meal snacking, rather than from a general increase in food consumption during meals. Gilbert and Pope (59) found that energy intake from meals was similar during 24-hour periods of ad libitum smoking and abstinence, but that intake from between-meal snacks increased 50 in men and 94 in women during abstinence. unclear. While several studies have reported differences in energy intake as a function of gender, they have disagreed on the nature of the relationship. Klesges et al. (39), for example, found increased intake of polyunsaturated and monoun-saturated fat in women during a week of abstinence, but no...

Effect of Inulin Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Normolipidemic Subjects

Luo et al. investigated effects of feeding oligofructose compared to sucrose (20 g d in cookies for 4 weeks) in a randomized cross over design (12 males).33 No changes in serum TAGs, cholesterol, or apolipoproteins were observed in either the treatment or placebo periods, although there was a strong trend for the concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) to be reduced at the end of the oligofructose feeding period.33


Sucrose 15 Sucrose is delayed V. nigripulchritudo produces a black pigment V. alginolyticus is negative for both the ONPG (ortho-nitrophenyl-D-galactopyranoside) test and lactose fermentation and V. parahaemolyt-icus is positive for acid production from L-arabinose. V. fluvialis is positive for acid production from L-arabinose, arginine dihydrolase positive, and lysine decarboxylase-negative, and negative for acid production from salicin and V. metschnikovii is VP-positive and oxidase-negative and unable to convert nitrate to nitrite (42,43). Motile strains of V. vulnificus express a polar, sheathed flagellum, and expression of lateral flagella has not been found. Although V. vulnificus strains were originally reported to be sucrose-negative by Hollis et al. (19), the CDC has observed over recent years an increase in the number of sucrose-positive strains (43). Even though it is considered to be an obligate halophile, the Na+ requirement can be satisfied through the use of NaCl in the...

Acquisition Of Gastric Malt

H. pylori infection is associated with a spectrum of abnormalities in the stomach. All patients infected by H. pylori have an abnormal gastric mucosa. Active chronic gastritis with neutrophil penetration predominantly of the superficial epithelium is maximal around the surface and neck regions, where the organism shows the highest concentration. In many instances, the neutrophils and H. pylori organisms are spatially related. Infiltration of the epithelium by acute inflammatory cells is likely to cause damage to the integrity of the epithelial barrier and to result in the potential leak of antigen into the lamina propria and stimulation of lymphoid tissue. This has been confirmed by studying gastric permeability to sucrose, which is higher in patients with H pylori infection (19) and which normalizes after eradication of the organism (20). Increased permeability of the epithelium together with the presence of H. pylori-derived antigens may be responsible for the subsequent acquisition...

Vibrio alginolyticus

In 1968, Sakazaki (14) proposed that biotype 2 Vibrio parahaemolyticus should be called Vibrio alginolyticus because it has various biochemical properties that are different from V. parahaemolyti-cus (Table 1). It can easily be differentiated from V. parahaemolyticus by its ability to ferment sucrose and consequently grow as a yellow colony on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar. Like V. parahaemolyticus, it is a common inhabitant of marine environment throughout the world. It has also been isolated from soft tissue, wound, ear, and eye infections and has been associated with a few cases of gastroenteritis. However, in many instances its role in pathogenicity cannot be determined since various other micoorganisms are also isolated from the same human clinical sample.

Ivepidemiology A Incidence of illness

Even before the designation of sucrose-negative V. cholerae as V. mimicus, sporadic cases of gastroenteritis associated with the organism had been reported worldwide (10). The pathogen has been isolated from human stools in the United States, Bangladesh, Mexico, Guam, Philippines, the Orient, Costa Rica, India, Japan, Belgium, and Romania (10,21,22,89-91). Most of the illnesses are sporadic cases however, a few outbreak-related cases have also been reported (20,22,92,93). Studies in Bangladesh show that all age groups of both sexes are susceptible to infection (94). However, Campos et al. (22) reported that the majority of patients infected with V. mimicus were males. In a survey in Florida (1981-1988), it was isolated from 16 of the 181 cases of gastroenteritis and 2 of the 91 cases of septicemia (95). Both the septicemia cases and 14 of the gastroenteritis cases were associated with consumption of raw oysters. In a 1989 survey of Vibrio infections on the Gulf Coast of the United...

Methods to Study the Behavioral Effects and Expression of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor and Its Gene Transcripts in the

Behavioral and molecular methods were used to study and determine whether there is a link between depression that may be a factor in drug alcohol addiction, and the endocannabinoid hypothesis of substance abuse. Depression is a lack of interest in the pleasurable things of life (termed anhedonia) and depressed mood. It is unknown whether CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in the brain and whether they are involved in depression and substance abuse. Therefore, mice were subjected daily for 4 wk to chronic mild stress (CMS), and anhedonia was measured by the consumption of 2 sucrose solution. Behavioral and rewarding effects of abused substances were determined in the CMS and control animals. The expression of CB2 receptors and their gene transcripts was compared in the brains of CMS and control animals by Western blotting using CB2 receptor antibody and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the expression and immunocytochemical identification of...

Inulin Type Fructans and Infant Formulas

Oligosaccharides are the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk19,20 in which these are believed to play two major roles, i.e., defense agents by acting as receptor analogues to inhibit the binding of enteropathogens to the host cell receptors and bifidogenic factors. At least 21 different kinds of these oligosaccharides have already been identified that are either linear or branched, composed of simple sugars like galactose, or sugar derivatives like uronic acids or uronic esters, some being acidic other being neutral.21,22

Gluconeogenesis Converts Fats and Proteins to Glucose in Germinating Seeds

Many plants store lipids and proteins in their seeds, to be used as sources of energy and as biosynthetic precursors during germination, before photosynthetic mechanisms have developed. Active gluconeogenesis in germinating seeds provides glucose for the synthesis of sucrose, polysaccharides, and many metabolites derived from hexoses. In plant seedlings, sucrose provides much of the chemical energy needed for initial growth.

In C4 Plants CO2 Fixation and Rubisco Activity Are Spatially Separated

Bundle Sheath Cell Labeled

Once CO2 is fixed into 3-phosphoglycerate in the bundle-sheath cells, the other reactions of the Calvin cycle take place exactly as described earlier. Thus in C4 plants, mesophyll cells carry out CO2 assimilation by the C4 pathway and bundle-sheath cells synthesize starch and sucrose by the C3 pathway.

Highly Efficient BAC Modification Based on the R6Ky Origin of Replication

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Vector

Third, this shuttle vector contains a counterselection marker, the SacB gene. The SacB gene product, levansucrase, converts sucrose to levan, which is toxic to the host cells, thus enhancing removal of unwanted vector sequences from the manipulated BACs, by allowing selection of resolved BAC clones by culture in sucrose.

Molarity and Molality

Molarity And Molality

Glucose is a monosaccharide with a molecular weight of 180 (the sum of its atomic weights). Sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose, which have molecular weights of 180 each. When glucose and fructose join together by dehydration synthesis to form sucrose, a molecule of water (molecular weight 18) is split off. Therefore, sucrose has a molecular weight of 342 (180 + 180 - 18). Since the molecular weights of sucrose and glucose are in a ratio of 342 180, it follows that 342 grams of sucrose must contain the same number of molecules as 180 grams of glucose.

Responses to osmotic stress


The osmotic physiology of phloem feeders involves sugars rather than salts and is closely connected with their carbon nutrition. Phloem sap has high and variable sugar concentrations (up to about 0.8 M sucrose). Aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) must feed more or less continuously to obtain sufficient nitrogen, and excess sugar and water is excreted as honeydew. Aphids solve the problem of an osmotically concentrated diet by maintaining high haemolymph sugar levels, and polymerizing dietary sugars to form oligosaccharides, such as the trisaccharide melezitose (Fisher et al. 1984 Rhodes et al. 1997). Pea aphids, A. pisum, reared on 0.75 M sucrose produce honeydew with a mean oligosaccharide length of 8.2, consisting mainly of glucose monomers because the fructose moiety of ingested sucrose is assimilated (Ashford et al. 2000). The extent of oligosaccharide synthesis is directly related to the dietary sucrose concentration, with the result that haemolymph and honeydew osmolalities remain...

Immobilization of Cells With Transition Metal

Activity determination is based on the invertase enzymatic activity of the immobilized cells. This is measured using as substrate a 2.0 (w v) solution of sucrose in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5. 1. Add 100 mg of immobilized biocatalyst to 5 mL of a 2.0 (w v) solution of sucrose in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer 20 mM, pH 4.5, at 45 C. 3. Thaw the samples to room temperature, and add 100 L of DNS reagent. Mix thoroughly and heat in a boiling water bath for 5 min. Cool to room temperature, add 1 mL of distilled water and measure the absorbance of the solutions at 540 nm. The concentration of the reducing sugars formed may be assessed by using a calibration curve determined according to Note 3.

Bees food quality and body temperature

Increasing Body Temperature Bees

Of water-collecting honeybees measured by thermography resembles that of bees feeding on 0.5 M sucrose, indicating similar motivation (Schmaranzer 2000). Similar results, showing Tth to be 3oC higher in bees feeding on high sucrose concentrations, have been obtained using thermocouples (Waddington 1990). Not surprisingly, the metabolic rate of honeybees likewise varies with the reward rate at the food source and the motivational state of the bees. Direct effects of nectar load on metabolic rate (Wolf et al. 1989) can be eliminated by training bees to collect food in a respirometer so that they need not transport it (Moffat and Nunez 1997). The metabolic rate of free-flying bees collecting food in a much larger respirometer is also inversely proportional to Ta at constant sucrose flow rate (Moffatt 2001), supporting previous studies showing variation of heat production during flight (Roberts and Harrison 1999). The beauty of infrared thermography is that it does not disturb social...

Soil Sand Resuspension

A novel and unique aspect is the presence of primary sugars (saccharides) in soils. The total extracts of agricultural soils from a safflower field and a tomato field are shown in Fig. 8b and c, respectively. The dominant compounds are sugars with only minor lipids and biomarkers. The most commonly encountered sugars are a- and -glucose, inositols (XXXII, several isomers), sucrose (disaccharide), and mycose (fungal disaccharide metabolite) 185 . Fructose, mannose, xylose, and other monosaccharides can also occur. Another aspect of soils is their enhanced contents of sterols and triter-penoids with depleted contents of the aliphatic plant wax lipids (i.e., alkanes and alkanols). The phytosterols (sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) are dominant, but cholesterol is also present, indicating a component from algae and fauna. Some soils can contain species-specific tracers, as, for example, ty-taraxasterol (XXXIII) in the safflower field (Fig. 8b). The presence of polar and...

Biochemical Reactions and Principles

TSI contains glucose, lactose, and sucrose as well as a pH-sensitive color indicator. It also contains an iron ingredient for detecting hydrogen sulfide production, which blackens the medium if it occurs (compare with H2S detection in SIM medium). Kligler's Iron Agar is similar but sucrose has been omitted (see colorplate 19). Glucose and lactose, and or sucrose fermented

Monosaccharides Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates include simple sugars, or monosaccharides, and longer molecules that contain a number of monosaccharides joined together. The suffix -ose denotes a sugar molecule the term hexose, for example, refers to a six-carbon monosaccharide with the formula C6Hi2O6. This formula is adequate for some purposes, but it does not distinguish between related hexose sugars, which are structural isomers of each other. The structural

Appetite And The Drive To

Hedonic Signals And Body Weight

For years the focus of investigations of appetite control has centred upon the termination of eating. This is because the termination of an eating episode being the endpoint of a behavioural act was perceived to be an unambiguous event around which empirical studies could be organized. Consequently satiety came to be the concept which formed the basis for accounts of appetite. SIGNALS FROM ADIPOSE TISSUE LEPTIN AND APPETITE CONTROL One of the classical theories of appetite control has involved the notion of a so-called long-term regulation involving a signal which informs the brain about the state of adipose tissue stores. This idea In this way the protein called leptin probably acts in a similar manner to insulin which has both central and peripheral actions for some years it has been proposed that brain insulin represents a body weight signal with the capacity to control appetite. At the present time the precise relationship between the OB protein and weight regulation has not been...

Carbohydrate Biosynthesis In Plants And Bacteria

20.3 Biosynthesis of Starch and Sucrose 771 The chapter begins with a description of the process by which CO2 is assimilated into trioses and hexoses, then considers photorespiration, an important side reaction during CO2 fixation, and the ways in which certain plants avoid this side reaction. We then look at how the biosynthesis of sucrose (for sugar transport) and starch (for energy storage) is accomplished by mechanisms analogous to those employed by animal cells to make glycogen. The next topic is the synthesis of the cellulose of plant cell walls and the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls, illustrating the problems of energy-dependent biosynthesis outside the plasma membrane. Finally, we discuss how the various pathways that share pools of common intermediates are segregated within organelles yet integrated with one another.

Write The Net Equation For Biosynthesis Of Palmitate In Rat Liver

Synthesis of Fatty Acids from Glucose After a person has ingested large amounts of sucrose, the glucose and fructose that exceed caloric requirements are transformed to fatty acids for triacylglycerol synthesis. This fatty acid synthesis consumes acetyl-CoA, ATP, and NADPH. How are these substances produced from glucose

The Indicator Dilution Method Measures Fluid Compartment Size

To measure extracellular water volume, the ideal indicator should distribute rapidly and uniformly outside the cells and should not enter the cell compartment. Unfortunately, there is no such ideal indicator, so the exact volume of the ECF cannot be measured. A reasonable estimate, however, can be obtained using two different classes of substances impermeant ions and inert sugars. ECF volume has been determined from the volume of distribution of these ions radioactive Na+, radioactive Cl_, radioactive sulfate, thio-cyanate (SCN ), and thiosulfate (S2O32-) radioactive sulfate (35SO42-) is probably the most accurate. However, ions are not completely impermeant they slowly enter the cell compartment, so measurements tend to lead to an overestimate of ECF volume. Measurements with inert sugars (such as mannitol, sucrose, and inulin) tend to lead to an underestimate of ECF volume because they are excluded from some of the extracellular water for example, the water in dense connective...

The lac Operon Undergoes Positive Regulation

Crp Camp Complex

The operator-repressor-inducer interactions described earlier for the lac operon (Fig. 28-7) provide an intuitively satisfying model for an on off switch in the regulation of gene expression. In truth, operon regulation is rarely so simple. A bacterium's environment is too complex for its genes to be controlled by one signal. Other factors besides lactose affect the expression of the lac genes, such as the availability of glucose. Glucose, metabolized directly by glycolysis, is E. call's preferred energy source. Other sugars can serve as the main or sole nutrient, but extra steps are required to prepare them for entry into glycolysis, necessitating the synthesis of additional enzymes. Clearly, expressing the genes for proteins that metabolize sugars such as lactose or arabinose is wasteful when glucose is abundant. What happens to the expression of the lac operon when both glucose and lactose are present A regulatory mechanism known as catabolite repression restricts expression of the...

On PrfADependent Virulence Gene Expression

Hexose Phosphate Transporter Listeria

Previous studies have repeatedly shown that sugars that can be used by L. monocytogenes as carbon source, like glucose, fructose, mannose, and cellobiose, have an inhibitory effect on PrfA activity and hence the PrfA-dependent gene expression (Behari and Youngman, 1998b Milenbachs et al., 1997 Milenbachs et al., 2004). The strongest inhibition is exerted by cellobiose. These sugars are taken up by PTS-mediated transport and result ultimately in the conversion to glucose-6-phosphate and in catabolite repression of many genes and operons in L. monocytogenes. The inhibition of PrfA activity by these sugars thus suggests that PrfA may interact either with components involved in carbon catabolite repression (CCR) or with PTS-mediated sugar transport or with both.

Caveolin and Rhofamily GTPases

Caveolin Focal Adhesion Dynamics

Must be tightly controlled spatiotemporally within the cells. Recent studies have suggested that the function of Rho GTPases may be deeply related with caveolae or lipid rafts. In endothelial cells, sucrose gradient density centrifugation studies have revealed that a significant proportion of RhoA and Cdc42 are localized within caveolae-enriched membrane domains. Moreover, caveolin-1 is directly bound with RhoA but not with Cdc42 6 . In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the initiation and transduction of stretch-induced RhoA and Rac1 activation requires caveolar compartment 7 . However, in unstretched cardiomyocytes RhoA and Rac1 were detected in both the caveolae and noncaveolar fractions. RhoA and Rac1 was activated within 4 minutes by stretching, then inactivated after 15 minutes, and subsequently became dissociated from the caveolae. In addition, treatment with methyl-b-cyclodextrin (mbCD), a caveolae-disrupting agent, inhibits the stretching-induced RhoA and Rac1 activation 7 ....

Energy Flow In Plant Cells

Energy Flow Marine

In plants, such reactions occur during the process whereby plant cells convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy that fuels plant growth and other processes. During this process, called photosynthesis, carbon dioxide combines with simple sugars to form more complex carbohydrates in special structures called chloroplasts. These chloro-plasts are membrane-bound organelles that occur in the cells of plants, algae, and some protists. The energy that drives the photosynthetic reaction is derived from the photons of sunlight hence it is an endergonic reaction (it requires energy). Because plants, algae, and certain protists are the only living organisms that can produce their chemical energy using sunlight, they are called producers all other life-forms are consumers. During seed germination, simple sugars, such as glucose, are broken down in a series of reactions called respiration. Energy is released to power the growth of embryo and young seedlings hence, the reaction is...

Special Considerations

Infection, illness, and surgery all make glucose control difficult due to multiple factors, including increased counter-regulatory hormones, anorexia, and altered meals and snacks. In general, sick children should be given their usual insulin dose. Insulin should never be skipped, and extra insulin is often required. Blood glucose levels should be checked every 3 to 4 hours and urine ketones should be checked if the blood glucose level is over 240 mg dL. If the child is able to eat. he or she should be given 4 to 6 oz of sugar-free fluid each hour in addition to regular meals. If the child is not able to eat his usual meals and snacks, sugar-free drinks should be alternated with sugar-containing drinks. The carbohydrate grams or servings allotted in the meal plan should be replaced with sugar-containing sodas, popsicles, juices, and gelatin.

Digestion And Absorption

Mixed Micelle Water Transport Absorption

Digestion and absorption may also be interfered with deliberately to reduce fat absorption in an attempt to control body weight. Synthetic fat substitutes, in particular sucrose-polyesters (sucrose with long-chain fatty acids esterified to its hydroxyl groups Section, can be used in cooking, and are completely resistant to the action of pancreatic lipase. They are used at present in some snack foods that might otherwise contribute significantly to energy intake. Similarly, a bacterial metabolite known as tetrahydrolipstatin (or orlistat) is licensed for prescription as a drug to treat obesity. Tetra-hydrolipstatin is a potent irreversible inhibitor of pancreatic lipase and so reduces the absorption of dietary fat. Certain plant sterols (phytosterols) can interfere with the absorption of cholesterol of both dietary and biliary origin, and are being marketed as components of spreads that can help to lower cholesterol levels in the blood.

Micropropagation And Jello

Plant Tissue Culture Instruments

Propagating plants through micropropagation is similar to growing them as cuttings. The major difference is that the plants are grown in vitro in a sterile medium and maintained in special controlled environment rooms. The medium includes a support matrix composed of agar, a gelatinous material extracted from red algae. Inorganic salts are added to the medium to provide macro- and micronutri-ents, such as nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, and iron. Sucrose is added to supplement the sugars produced by the plant. In addition, vitamins such as thiamine, nicotinic acid, and inositol are generally included in the growth medium. Commonly, growth regulators are also added. After the ingredients are combined and pH is adjusted, the mixture is poured into test tubes. The tubes are then capped and put in an autoclave (a large form of pressure cooker) to sterilize them (Fig. 14. 25). When the medium cools, it solidifies like Jell-O . This acts as the soil in the micropropagation system, providing...

Ketogenic Diet Therapy

Strict adherence to the diet is essential since only a small variation in dietary intake can affect the maintenance of ketosis and thus seizure control. Food is usually divided into three meals per day. Intake between meals is restricted to those foods that provide little or no carbohydrates. These include sugar-free fruit-llavored drinks made w ith saccharin, sugar-free soda, water, or measured amounts of nuts or olives. The diet must be supplemented with a multivitamin and multimineral supplement as well as additional calcium. The carbohydrate content of all medications must be determined and calculated as part of the total carbohydrate content of the diet.'1

Differential Characteristics

Coagulase Test Igg Clumping Factor

S. aureus is differentiated from the other staphylococcal species by a combination of the following features colonial morphology and pigmentation, production of coagulase, thermonuclease, acetone, P-galactosidase, phosphatase and a-toxin (hemolysin), acid from mannitol, maltose, xylose, sucrose, and trehalose, novobiocin resistance, presence of ribitol teichoic acid, protein A, and clumping factor in the cell wall. The ultimate species identification may be established by DNA-DNA hybridization with reference strains. A nonisotopic DNA hybridization assay and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure have been used to successfully identify S. aureus.

Stephanie A Amiel Introduction

The risks of intensified insulin therapy, the focus of this chapter, are those of insulin itself - intensified. Thus the major side-effects are weight gain (The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1988) and hypoglycaemia (The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1993 1995a 1997). Both of these problems may appear to be minimised with modern strategies for patient self-management, at least in published studies (Jorgens et al., 1993 DAFNE Study Group, 2002 Plank 2004 et al. Samann et al. 2005), yet they remain serious issues for large numbers of people. Weight gain, attributed primarily to the resolution of caloric loss in glycosuria (Carlson and Campbell, 2003), is theoretically responsive to dietary strategies, but insulin and peripheral insulin sensitizers do cause lipogenesis and fluid retention, both of which contribute to a rise in weight that may be unacceptable to patients. Evidence is accumulating about the potential effects of insulin...

Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis

Many carbohydrates besides glucose meet their cata-bolic fate in glycolysis, after being transformed into one of the glycolytic intermediates. The most significant are the storage polysaccharides glycogen and starch the disaccharides maltose, lactose, trehalose, and sucrose and the monosaccharides fructose, mannose, and galactose (Fig. 14-9).

The Flow of Electrons Provides Energy for Organisms

Nearly all living organisms derive their energy, directly or indirectly, from the radiant energy of sunlight, which arises from thermonuclear fusion reactions carried out in the sun. Photosynthetic cells absorb light energy and use it to drive electrons from water to carbon dioxide, forming energy-rich products such as glucose (C6H12O6), starch, and sucrose and releasing O2 into the atmosphere

Protein Stabilization by Excipients

Proteins are stabilized by excipients mainly through preferential interaction, a major stabilization mechanism that has been described elsewhere (Timasheff 1993, 1998 Lin and Timasheff 1996). Other stabilization mechanisms have also been proposed. One of these is the increased solution viscosity in the presence of excipients. Jacob and Schmid (1999) found that both refolding and unfolding of the cold-shock protein CspB from Bacillus subtilis were decelerated in the presence of sucrose or ethylene glycol. This observation was postulated to be due to an increase in solution viscosity, as refolding and unfolding were considered as diffusional processes, at least for certain proteins. Since the partially unfolded state has a higher diffusion coefficient, increasing the solution viscosity would have a greater effect on the partially unfolded state than on the folded state (Damodaran and Song 1988). This mechanism may explain why the population of unfolded RNase A was decreased in the...

Why Do You Use Beef Heart Tissue And In Such Large Quantity

Each step of the purification on ice or in a walk-in cold room. You homogenize the beef heart tissue in a high-speed blender in a medium containing 0.2 m sucrose, buffered to a pH of 7.2. Why do you use beef heart tissue, and in such large quantity What is the purpose of keeping the tissue cold and suspending it in 0.2 m sucrose, at pH 7.2 What happens to the tissue when it is homogenized

Macrolide Antibiotics

Hemiketal Macrolide

The macrolide antibiotics are macrocyclic lactones with a ring size typically 12-16 atoms, and with extensive branching through methyl substituents. Two or more sugar units are attached through glycoside linkages, and these sugars tend to be unusual 6-deoxy structures often restricted to this class of compounds. Examples include L-cladinose, L-mycarose, D-mycinose, and L-oleandrose. At least one sugar is an amino sugar, e.g. D-desosamine, D-forosamine, and D-mycaminose. These antibiotics have a narrow spectrum of antibacterial activity, principally against Gram-positive microorganisms. Their antibacterial spectrum resembles, but is not identical to, that of the penicillins, so they provide a valuable alternative for patients allergic to the penicillins. Erythromycin is the principal macrolide antibacterial currently used in medicine.

Lap Band Contrast Studies

Herniated Lap Band

For maximal constriction before concerns arise about damage to the band from overinflation. A logical adjustment strategy is to progressively narrow the band diameter until the patient begins a steady and sustained weight loss. One approach is to inject 1 2 ml of saline into the band at intervals of 2-4 weeks between injections while monitoring the patient's intake of both calories and food groups. Patients must be repeatedly told to avoid sugar and other sweets that provide a high caloric intake in a small volume, since sweets-eating behavior is one of the more common reasons for failure of gastric restriction procedures for obesity. We have routinely excluded patients with identifiable sweets-eating behaviors from undergoing gastric restrictive procedures. Despite this, we have seen many patients develop sweets-eating behavior when faced with the postoperative limitations in quantity of oral consumption imposed by the procedure. Repeated dietary counseling may help avoid, and...

Digestion And Absorption Of Carbohydrates

Structure Glycogen

The major disaccharides in the diet are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose, present in sugar cane and honey, is composed of glucose and fructose. Lactose, the main sugar in milk, is composed of galactose and glucose. Maltose is composed of two glucose units. The digestion products of starch and glycogen, together with disaccharides (sucrose and lactose), are further digested by enzymes located at the brush border membrane. Table 27.6 lists the enzymes involved in the digestion of disaccharides and oligosaccharides and the products of their action. The final products are glucose, fructose, and galactose.

Why There Is No Lagging Strand To Be Made With The Same Fidelity

Function of DNA Ligase Some E. coli mutants contain defective DNA ligase. When these mutants are exposed to 3H-labeled thymine and the DNA produced is sedimented on an alkaline sucrose density gradient, two radioactive bands appear. One corresponds to a high molecular weight fraction, the other to a low molecular weight fraction. Explain.

Factors Regulating GnRH secretion

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in many CNS functions, including appetite control and reproduction. Infusion of NPY into the median eminence stimulates GnRH release in pubertal, but not in prepubertal, female monkeys, suggesting that NPY contributes to the pubertal process (37). Furthermore, in male rhesus monkeys, the postnatal pattern of GnRH pulse generator activity is inversely related to that of NPY gene and protein expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus, and central administration of an NPY Y1 receptor antagonist to juvenile animals elicits precocious GnRH release (38), suggesting a central role for NPY in the break restraining the onset of puberty in primates.

Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Associated With Leptin and LeptinR Mutations

The adipocyte-specific hormone, leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, acts on the hypothalamus to control appetite and energy expenditure (102). Leptin acts through the leptin receptor (leptin-R), a single transmembrane-domain receptor of the cytokine-receptor family (103). In 1997, Montague reported the first consanguineous family with two very obese prepubertal children who had congenital leptin deficiency (104). The two cousins were homozygous for a frameshift mutation in the leptin gene. Leptin administration to one of these children led to a sustained reduction of weight mainly

Experiment 172 Starch Hydrolysis

Some microorganisms split apart (hydrolyze) large organic molecules and then use the component parts in further metabolic processes. Starch is a polysaccharide that is hydrolyzed by some bacteria. When iodine is added to the intact starch molecule, a blue-colored complex forms. If starch is hydrolyzed by bacterial enzymes, however, it is broken down to simple sugars (glucose and maltose) that do not complex with iodine, and no color reaction is seen.

Transport Systems and Sugar Utilization

The Listeria genomes encode an abundance of transport proteins (e.g., 11.6 of all predicted genes of L. monocytogenes EGDe). These comprise, in particular, proteins dedicated to carbohydrate transport conferring Listeria probably in part its ability to colonize a broad range of ecosystems. The overall array of sugar transporters is similar in all Listeria genomes, in particular among the four sequenced L. monocytogenes strains, but also with L. innocua. Listeria are predicted to transport and metabolize many simple as well as complex sugars including fructose, rhamnose, rhamnulose, glucose, mannose, chitin, sucrose, cellulose, pullan, trehalose, and tagatose. These sugars are largely associated with the environments where Listeriae are found. As in most bacterial genomes the predominant class corresponds to ABC transporters. Interestingly, most of the carbohydrate transport proteins belong to phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS)-mediated carbohydrate...

Avidin BiotinLiposome System for Intraperitoneal and Lymph Node Drug Delivery

Intraperitoneal Lymph Nodes

Preparation of biotin-liposomes containing blue dye It is very useful for tracking liposomes after intracavitary injection to encapsulate blue dye for visual identification. This method supplements the ability to label liposomes with technetium-99m (99mTc) for noninvasive imaging. The liposomes used for this purpose are comprised of a 50.5 45 2.5 2 molar ratio (total lipid) of distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) cholesterol N-biotinoyl distearoyl phosphoethanolamine a-tocopherol. Liposomes are prepared in a laminar flow hood using aseptic conditions as previously described (48). A dried film of lipid ingredients in chloroform is formed by rotary evaporation and vacuum desiccation for at least four hours. The dried lipid film is rehydrated in 300 mM sucrose in sterile water and lyophilized overnight. The resultant lyophilized powder is then rehydrated with 200 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 10mg mL patent blue dye in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 6.3, at a final...

Disaccharides Contain a Glycosidic Bond

Disaccharides (such as maltose, lactose, and sucrose) consist of two monosaccharides joined covalently by an O-glycosidic bond, which is formed when a hydroxyl group of one sugar reacts with the anomeric carbon of the other (Fig. 7-11). This reaction represents the formation of an acetal from a hemiacetal (such as glu-copyranose) and an alcohol (a hydroxyl group of the second sugar molecule) (Fig. 7-5). Glycosidic bonds are readily hydrolyzed by acid but resist cleavage by base. Thus disaccharides can be hydrolyzed to yield their free monosaccharide components by boiling with dilute acid. -glycosyl bonds join the anomeric carbon of a sugar to a nitrogen atom in glycoproteins (see Fig. 7-31) and nucleotides (see Fig. 8-1). The oxidation of a sugar's anomeric carbon by cupric or ferric ion (the reaction that defines a reducing sugar) occurs only with the linear form, which exists in equilibrium with the cyclic form(s). When the anomeric carbon is involved in a glycosidic bond, that...

Screening tTArtTA Regulator Lines

After confirmation of tTA rtTA by PCR and Southern blot analysis, positive founder animals are screened by crossing with tet responsive reporter lines. A list of the available tet responsive reporter lines can be found at the website In doubly mutant mice, the level of reporter expression is monitored both in the absence and in the presence of dox. The Bujard laboratory routinely dissolves dox-HCl (Sigma) in 5 sucrose at a final concentration of 200 g ml. The water bottle should be light protected and the dox-containing water should be renewed every 3 days. Alternatively, dox-containing food pellets ( dox diet from Bio-Serv, Frenchtown, NJ) are available at multiple concentrations (20 mg kg-6 g kg) and can be obtained at a specific concentration by custom order. To test tet-regulated reporter expression in doubly mutant mice, we start at 1 week following feeding with dox water at 200 g ml or dox diet at 200 mg kg. Depending on the result, we then alter the feeding agenda by...

Effect of salinity temperature and desiccation on supraand eulittoral seaweeds

All Antarctic Chlorophyta studied possess as main organic osmolytes the carbohydrate sucrose and the imino acid proline, and with the exception of Prasiola a third compound, b-dimethylsulphoniumpropionate (DMSP). Prasiola is able to synthesize polyols such as sorbitol and ribitol instead of DMSP. The concentrations of all osmolytes are actively regulated as a function of the external salinity. Because of its physicochemical properties proline is one of the most potent organic osmolytes, which not only balances salinity stress, but also may stimulate enzymatic activity. This imino acid is the most important osmolyte in ice-algae too (Thomas and Dieckmann 2002). Sucrose is also a well-known osmotically active compound in many higher and lower plants, and also exhibits a cryoprotective function. The osmotic function of DMSP seems to be unique to Antarctic Chloro-phyta in comparison with temperate ones, because of very high intracellular concentrations and the strong biosynthesis and...

Recording From Individual Neurons

Hippocampus Slice Record

Briefly chilled in ice-cold cutting saline. For the sake of completeness, I will note that the cutting saline consists of 110 mM sucrose, 60 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl, 1.25 mM NaH2PO4, 28 mM NaHCO3, 500 yM CaC12, 5 mM D-glucose, 7 mM MgCl2, and 600 yM ascorbate. After this solution is made, it is saturated with 95 O2 and 5 CO2 by bubbling this gas through the solution. A standard aquarium air stone serves quite nicely for this purpose. The high Mg2+ concentration in the cutting solution helps maintain the health of the tissue during

Additional Environmental Stimuli That May Influence PrfA Activity

Two additional loci have been identified that contribute to the repression of PrfA-dependent gene expression via carbon sources. The bvr locus (Brehm et al. 1999) and the csr locus (Milenbachs et al. 2004) contribute to the repression of PrfA activity by P-glucosides such as cellobiose and arbutin these sugars are abundant in silage, a common environmental source of L. monocytogenes. The bvr locus has been postulated to encode an environmental sensor of P-glucosides (Brehm et al. 1999), whereas the csr locus appears to encode a transport system for P-glucosides (Milenbachs et al. 2004). It has been postulated that csr and bvr influence PrfA-dependent gene expression via a pathway that is distinct but interconnected with the regulation of virulence gene expression by the general carbon catabolite repression pathway (Milenbachs et al. 2004).

Digestion Of Carbohydrates In The Gastrointestinal Tract

Digestion Carbohydrates

In the human diet, the most common carbohydrates are starch, sucrose, lactose, fructose, glucose, and dietary fibers. Most ( 50-60 of daily intake) carbohydrates are starch, which is a mixture of linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) polymers of glucose with D-1, 4 and D-1, 4 + D-1, 6 linkages, respectively. Starch, as well as the disaccharides lactose and sucrose, is hydrolyzed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal system (Figure 4.1), essentially the oral cavity and the small intestine, whereas the dietary fibers are not. The monosaccharides that preexist in the diet (fructose and glucose) and that are produced by the hydrolysis of starch and disaccharides (lactose and sucrose) are absorbed and reach the systemic circulation via the portal vein. But the oligo- and monosaccharides that reach or are produced in the large bowel, essentially by bacterial hydrolysis of dietary fibers and, in some populations, lactose, are not absorbed but fermented. Strictly speaking, the...

Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Occurs in Three Stages

Types Plastids

Lose 1,5-bisphosphate (15 carbons), the starting material. The sixth molecule of triose phosphate, the net product of photosynthesis, can be used to make hex-oses for fuel and building materials, sucrose for transport to nonphotosynthetic tissues, or starch for storage. Thus the overall process is cyclical, with the continuous conversion of CO2 to triose and hexose phosphates. Fructose 6-phosphate is a key intermediate in stage 3 of CO2 assimilation it stands at a branch point, leading either to regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate or to synthesis of starch. The pathway from hexose phosphate to pentose bisphosphate involves many of the same reactions used in animal cells for the conversion of pentose phosphates to hexose phosphates during the nonoxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway (see Fig. 14-22). In the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2, essentially the same set of reactions operates in the other direction, converting hexose phosphates to pentose phosphates. This...

Covalent bonds consist of shared pairs of electrons

A molecule made up of more than one type of atom is called a compound. A molecular formula uses chemical symbols to identify the different atoms in a compound and subscript numbers to show how many of each type of atoms are present. Thus, the formula for sucrose table sugar is C12H22O11. Each compound has a molecular weight (molecular mass) that is the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the molecule. Looking at the periodic table in Figure 2.3, you can calculate the molecular weight of table sugar to be 342. Molecular weights are usually related to a molecule's size (Figure 2.9).

Glycosylation Reactions

Sugar units to a suitable atom of an aglycone to give a glycoside, or to another sugar giving a polysaccharide. Linkages tend to be through oxygen, although they are not restricted to oxygen, since S-, N-, and C-glycosides are well known. The agent for glycosylation is a uridine diphosphosugar, e.g. UDPglucose. This is synthesized from glucose 1-phosphate and UTP, and then the glucosylation process can be envisaged as a simple SN2 nucleophilic displacement reaction Figure 2.27(a) . Since UDPglucose has its leaving group in the a-configuration, the product has the -configuration, as is most commonly found in natural glucosides. Note, however, that many important carbohydrates, e.g. sucrose and starch, possess a-linkages, and these appear to originate via double SN2 processes (see page 470). Other UDPsugars, e.g. UDPgalactose or UDPxylose, are utilized in the synthesis of glycosides containing different sugar units.

Molecular Mechanisms Of Insect Amino Acid Absorption

Glucose transporters such as the well known Na+-glucose cotransporters have been intensively studied in vertebrates, although little is known about their equivalents in insects (but see Andersson Escher and Rasmuson-Lestander 1999). Evidence summarized by Turunen and Crailsheim (1996) suggests that glucose transport is passive in most insects transport is unaffected by metabolic inhibitors, depends on concentration gradient, and fructose and unmetabolized 3-O-methylglucose are transported at the same rate as glucose. Crailsheim (1988) found that 3-O-methylglucose injected into the haemolymph of honeybees became equally distributed between midgut lumen and haemo-lymph in 30 min. It is assumed that fructose transport across the gut wall is also passive, and fructose is then converted to glucose by hexokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase (Bailey 1975). In the fat body, trehalose is synthesized from glucose via hexose phosphates (also intermediates in glycogen synthesis). Like the transport...

Assimilation And Digestion

Important carbohydrates produced from simple sugars are sucrose, starch, and cellulose. Much of the organic matter produced through photosynthesis is eventually used in the building of protoplasm and cell walls. This conversion process is called assimilation. When photosynthesis is taking place, sugar may be produced faster than it can be used or transported away to other parts of the plant. When this happens, the excess sugar may be converted to large, insoluble molecules, such as starch or oils, temporarily stored in the chloroplasts and then later changed back to a soluble form that is transported to other cells. The conversion of starch and other insoluble carbohydrates to soluble forms is called digestion (Fig. 10.15). The process is nearly always one of hydrolysis, in which water is taken up and, with the aid of enzymes, the links of the chains of simple sugars that comprise the molecules of starch and similar carbohydrates are broken by the addition of water. The disaccharide...

Tissue Preparation for Paraffin Embedded Tissue

After dehydration and clearing, tissue must be infiltrated with a supporting medium, which also is called embedding medium. Paraffin wax is the most popular medium because the tissue blocks may be processed in comparatively short period of time, serial sections are easily taken and routine and most special stains are easily done. Water-soluble waxes, celloidin, plastics, agar and gelatin and 30 sucrose are examples of other embedding media (19,20).

The Integration And Control Of Animal Acylglycerol Metabolism

Metabolisme Lipid

The activity of PAP, like that of GPAT, generally runs parallel to the potential for overall acylglycerol synthesis in that tissue, and it has been suggested that PAP is the major locus for regulation of TAG biosynthesis. However, it now appears more likely that control is 'shared' by a number of enzymes. PAP activity in liver is increased by high levels of dietary sucrose and fat, by ethanol and by conditions, such as starvation, that result in high concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids. It is also increased in obese animals. It is decreased in diabetes and by administration of drugs that result in a reduction of circulating lipid concentrations. The factors that tend to increase the activity of PAP are also those that result in an increased supply of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids to the liver, namely those fatty acids normally esterified in simple acylglycerols. If PAP activity is low, the substrate for the enzyme - phosphatidic acid, the central...

Glycogen Storage Disease

Continuous overnight nasogastric or gastrostomy feedings are used to prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia. Patients should eat immediately after the overnight feeding has been discontinued. An alternative approach uses oral doses of uncooked cornstarch (I'CS) every 4 to 6 hours to provide a continuous source of glucose. The UCS doses are calculated using 1.75 to 2.5 g kg body weight per dose. The I'CS is mixed in cool water or a sugar-free beverage. I 'sc of I'CS is not recommended in infants under CJ months of age as pancreatic amylase activity may be insufficient.

ApoE and lipoprotein metabolism

Several studies have investigated the relationship between apoE polymorphisms and responses to diets. Healthy men ingesting a low-fat diet vs their usual high-fat, cholesterol diet showed extents of reduction in LDL cholesterol in the following order E4 E4 E4 E3 E3 E3 E3 E2 (Dreon et al., l995). In a cohort of men and women with coronary heart disease, a high sucrose intake resulted in higher plasma triglyceride concentration only in patients with the apoE-E2 allele. In these patients too, saturated fat or fibre intake predicted serum cholesterol levels (Erkkila et al., 200l). The response to a fat-rich test-meal was also investigated in normolipidaemic patients with type 2 diabetes (Reznik et al., l996). In this study the accumulation of TRL remnants (retinyl palmitate) was postprandially exacerbated in patients with E2 E3 or E3 E4 genotypes. Finally, the response to alcohol drinking was evaluated in a cohort of healthy men and women (Corella et al., 200l). In this study men and...

Implications For Obesity

Most effective of the intervention studies where there was a striking reduction in dietary fat from 31.5 to 6.8 , this was accompanied by only a 0.6 MJ day decrease in energy intake over one year (48). Apparently three-quarters of the decrease in fat was counterbalanced by increases in energy from other dietary constituents. This compensation may represent a physiological system which recognizes the fall in energy intake and endeavours to restore the status quo by stimulating consumption (26). Even if subjects adhere to the low fat prescription, weight loss may be attenuated by increases in other macronutrients. The overt nature of a study where subjects must self-select their own food (unlike the mostly covert laboratory manipulations) may trigger unpredictable cognitive responses, as observed in the preload test meal paradigms (23). Covert manipulations may therefore be more effective in producing spontaneous weight loss because there is no obstructive cognitive response. However,...

Management Of Hypoglycaemia

The simplest treatment, when the patient recognises the early warning symptoms (see Chapter 2), is to eat carbohydrate, which must be palatable, concentrated and portable. Glucose tablets (Dextrosol) are usually recommended in the UK, barley sugar in the USA and, in France, lumps of sugar (sucrose). Beverages such as soft drinks or orange juice with a high glucose content are also suitable. The important factor is that short-acting carbohydrate should be followed by some form of longer-acting carbohydrate such as bread or biscuits.

Photosynthetic Carbohydrate Synthesis

Sucrose (transport) Carbohydrate metabolism is more complex in plant cells than in animal cells or in nonphotosynthetic microorganisms. In addition to the universal pathways of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, plants have the unique reaction sequences for reduction of CO2 to triose phosphates and the associated reductive pentose phosphate pathway all of which must be coordinately regulated to ensure proper allocation of carbon to energy production and synthesis of starch and sucrose. Key enzymes are regulated, as we shall see, by (1) reduction of disulfide bonds by electrons flowing from photosystem I and (2) changes in pH and Mg2+ concentration that result from illumination. When we look at other aspects of plant carbohydrate metabolism, we also find enzymes that are modulated by (3) conventional allosteric regulation by one or more metabolic intermediates and (4) covalent modification (phosphorylation).

Effect of Inulin Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Noninsulin Dependent Diabetic Niddm Subjects

Administration of oligofructose in a packed coffee drink or coffee jelly for 14 d to uncontrolled diabetics (8 men and 10 women) fed a diabetic diet (55 carbohydrates, 25 fat, and 20 proteins) reduced total (8 ) and LDL cholesterol (10 ), compared with a control group given sucrose in the same food vehicles. No effects on other serum lipids but a decrease in blood glucose concentrations were observed.42

Risk Factors

Most consistent association noted in dietary studies has been the link between increased sugar intake and CD 88 . A population-based case-control study from The Netherlands implicated chocolate and cola drink consumption as possible risk factors for IBD 89 . Finally, high intake of dietary fibre, fruit or vegetables may be protective against the development of IBD, but results vary from study to study 90-91 .

Cellular Structure

The remainder of the cell mass is accounted for by macro-molecules, also called polymers (or biopolymers in the present case), which include peptides proteins (formed from amino acids), polysaccharides (formed from sugars), DNA (dioxyribonucleic acid, formed from nucleotide bases and dioxyribose sugar), RNA (ribonucleic acid, formed from nucleotide bases and ribose sugar), and phospholipids (formed from fatty acids). These macromol-ecular polymers organize to form cells. To contain these molecules, a semipermeable membrane (phospholipid bilayer) surrounds them to form a cell. Within this biological universe, two types of organized cells exist, as shown in Table 3.1. Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) are cells with little internal structure and no defined nucleus. Eukaryotic cells have a significantly more complex internal architecture including a defined, membrane-bound nucleus. The smallest organized particle is a virus. The smallest self-replicating cells are...

Production Processes

Until biomass conversion becomes more widely used, carbohydrate fermentation processes are destined to be a decreasingly important source of industrial ethanol. Beverage alcohol is produced from a great variety of sources, including grains, potatoes, and fruit, but fermentation-based industrial alcohol is almost entirely obtained by yeast fermentation of molasses. Molasses (50 percent sucrose residue from sugar processing) is diluted with water to approximately 15 percent and under slightly acidic conditions is fermented by yeast to give 14 percent ethanol. Fractional distillation of the solution yields the commercial product 95 percent ethanol. Approximately two and one-half gallons of blackstrap molasses is needed to make a gallon of 190-proof ethanol. (Alcohol content is usually described in terms of its proof value, which is twice its ethanol percentage.)


DMSO could contribute to hESC death and differentiation. First, addition and removal of DMSO causes osmotic stress that may affect the survival of delicate cells. Second, DMSO itself has been shown to be a potent inducer of apoptosis and differentiation. Alternate cryoprotectants that are being investigated are permeable agents such as ethy-lene glycol, propylene glycol, glycerol and erythritol and non-permeable sugars and sugar-alcohols such as D-glucose and fructose, sucrose, trehalose, mannose, raffinose, adonitol, glucitol, and sorbitol.


Immediately submerge the narrow end of the straw (the end containing the cells) into the well containing HM + 0.2 M sucrose. 4. Incubate the clumps of cells for 1 min in HM + 0.2 M sucrose. 5. Using a 20 pL pipettor, transfer the clumps of cells to a well containing HM + 0.1 M sucrose.

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