F2 generation (3 tall : 1 dwarf)

Figure 13.10 Two generations of offspring in peas. The F1 generation is composed of tall plants and was created by crossing a true-breeding tall plant with a true-breeding short plant. The F2 generation is composed of 75% tall plants and 25% short plants, and was created by intercrossing F1 plants.

has a green phenotype, then its genotype could be either GG or Gg. The genotype of yellow-podded plants would always be gg. The plant is said to be homozygous if both alleles of a pair are identical (e.g., GG or gg) and heterozygous if the pair is composed of contrasting alleles (e.g., Gg). Mendel's true-breeding parents were homozygous for the traits he studied.

It is amazing that, nearly 150 years ago, Mendel was able to develop hereditary laws that are widely recognized today. Remember that he did his work before anyone knew about chromosomes, meiosis, or genes.

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