Uses

Black walnut Bladder campion Blueberry Bracken fern

Broomrape Bulrush (Tule)

Butternut Camas Caraway Cattail

Chicory

Chokecherry

Clover

"Coffee" (wild) Common chickweed Corn lily Cow parsnip

Cowpea

Crab apple Cranberry (wild, bog)

Crowberry Dandelion

Dock

Douglas fir Elderberry

Evening primrose

Fairy bells

Fennel

Ferns

Fireweed

Fritillary

Juglans nigra Silene cucubalus Vaccinium spp. Pteridium aquilinum

Orobanche spp. Scirpus spp.

Juglans cinerea Camassia quamash Carum carvi Typha spp.

Cichorium intybus

Prunus virginiana

Trifolium spp. Triosteum spp. Stellaria media Clintonia borealis Heracleum lanatum

Vigna sinensis

Pyrus spp. Vaccinium spp.

Empetrum nigrum Taraxacum sp. aff.

Rumex spp.

Pseudotsuga menziesii Sambucus spp.

Oenothera hookeri,

O. biennis, and others Disporum trachycarpum Foeniculum vulgare Most (but not all) spp. Epilobium angustifolium Fritillaria spp.

Nut meats edible

Young shoots (less than 5 cm tall) cooked as a vegetable Fruits edible raw, frozen, and in pies, jams, and jellies Young uncoiling leaves ("fiddleheads") cooked like asparagus; rhizomes also edible but usually tough (Caution: Evidence indicates that frequent consumption of bracken fern can cause cancer of the intestinal tract) Entire plant eaten raw or roasted

Roots and young shoot tips edible raw or cooked; pollen and seeds also edible

Nut meats edible

Roasted bulbs considered a delicacy

Young leaves in salads; seeds for flavoring baked goods and cheeses Copious pollen produced by flowers in early summer is rich in vitamins and can be gathered and mixed with flour for baking; rhizomes can be cooked and eaten like potatoes

Leaves eaten raw or cooked; dried, ground roots (roasted) make good coffee substitute

Fruits make excellent jelly or can be cooked with sugar for pies and cobblers

Roots edible

Berries dried and roasted make good coffee substitute

Plants cooked as a vegetable

Youngest leaves can be used as a cooked vegetable

Roots and young stems cooked (Caution: Be certain of identity; some other members of the family that are similar in appearance to cow parsnip are highly toxic)

"Peas" and young pods cooked as a vegetable (plant naturalized in southern U.S.)

Jelly made from fruits

Berries edible cooked, preserved, or in drinks; adding a small amount of salt while cooking significantly reduces amount of sugar needed to counteract acidity

Fruits should first be frozen, then cooked with sugar

Leaves rich in vitamin A; dried roots make good coffee substitute; wine made from young flowers

Leaves cooked like spinach; tartness of leaves varies from species to species and sometimes from plant to plant—tart forms should be cooked in two or three changes of water

Cambium and young phloem edible; tea made from fresh leaves Fresh flowers used to flavor batters; fruits used in pies, jellies, wine (Caution: Other parts of the plant are poisonous) Young roots cooked

Berries can be eaten raw Leaf petioles eaten raw or cooked

Young coiled fronds (fiddleheads) may be cooked as a vegetable Young shoots and leaves boiled as a vegetable Cooked bulbs are edible

Useful and Poisonous Plants, Fungi, an d Al gae

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