Temperature

Temperature plays a major role in the rate at which the various respiratory reactions occur. For example, when air temperatures rise from 20°C (68°F) to 30°C (86°F), the respiration rates of plants double and sometimes even triple. The faster respiration occurs, the faster the energy is released from sugar molecules, with an accompanying decrease in weight. In growing plants, this weight loss is more than offset by the production of new sugar by photosynthesis. In harvested fruits, seeds, and vegetables, however, respiration continues without sugar replacement, and some water loss also occurs. Respiring cells convert energy stored as starch or sugar primarily to ATP, but much of the energy is lost in the form of heat, with only 39% being stored as ATP. Most fresh foods are kept under refrigeration, not only to lower the respiration rate and retard water loss, but also to dissipate the heat. Keeping the temperatures down is also important to prevent the growth and reproduction of food-spoiling molds and bacteria, which may thrive at warmer temperatures.

Heat inactivates most enzymes at temperatures above 40°C (104°F), but a few organisms, such as various cyanobacteria and algae in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and similar places, have adapted in such a way that they are able to thrive at temperatures exceeding 60°C (140°F)—heat that would kill other organisms of comparable size almost instantly.

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