Table A21

Specific Weeds and Agents Involved in Th eir Biological Control

AGENT(S) OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides)

Bladder campion (Silene cucubalus)

Brazil peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius)

Brushweed (Cassia surattensis)

Curly dock (Rumex crispus)

Curse (Clidemia hirta)

Cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias)

Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)

Emex (Emex australis)

Gorse (Ulex europaeus)

Halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus)

Hawaiian blackberry (Rubus penetrans)

Jamaica feverplant (puncture vine)

(Tribulus terrestris)

Joint vetch (Aeschynomene virginica)

Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)

Lantana (Lantana camara)

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) Mediterranean sage (Salvia aethiopis) Milkweed vine (Morrenia odorata) Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) Puncture vine (see Jamaica feverplant) Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) Skeleton weed (Chondrilla juncea)

Spiny emex (Emex spinosa) Tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)

Thistles:

Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) Musk thistle (Carduus nutans)

Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis) Plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides)

Russian thistle (Salsola kali var. tenuifolia) Slenderflower thistle (Carduus tenuiflorus) Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) Star thistle (Centaurea nigrescens) Yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Water purslane (Ludwigia palustris)

Flea beetles (Agasicles hygrophila)

Tortoise beetle (Cassida hemisphaerica)

Weevil (Bruchus atronotatus) and others

Imperfect fungus (Cephalosporium sp.)

Rust (Uromyces rumicis)

Thrip (Liothrips urichi) and others

Sphinx moth (Hyles euphorbiae)

Leaf miner (Stagmatophora serratella) and others

Seed weevils (Apion antiquum) and others

Seed weevils (Apion ulicis) and others

Casebearer (Coleophora parthenica) and others

Sawflies (Pamphilius sitkensis, Priophorus morio) and others

Weevils (Microlarinus spp.)

Imperfect fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)

Leaf beetles (Chrysolina spp.), buprestid beetle (Agrilus hyperici)

Seed weevil (Apion sp.), ghost moth (Hepialus sp.), plume moth (Platyptilia pusillidactyla), hairstreaks (Strymon spp.), and others

Wood-boring beetle (Oberea sp.) and others

Snout beetles (Phrydiuchus spp.)

Oomycete fungus (Phytophthora citrophthora), rust (Aecidium asclepiadinum) Moth (Cactoblastis cactorum), cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.), and others Weevils (Microlarinus spp.) Seed weevil (Apion fuscirostre) and others

Gall mite (Aceria chondrillae), root moth (Bradyrrhoa gilveolella), rust (Puccinia chondrillina), powdery mildews (Erysiphe cichoracearum, Leveillula taurica) Seed weevil (Apion antiquum)

Seed fly (Hylemya seneciella), cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae), leaf beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae)

Weevil (Ceuthorrhynchidius horridus), tortoise beetle (Cassida rubiginosa) Weevil (Ceutorhynchus litura), flea beetle (Altica carduorum), stem gall fly (Urophora cardui) Seed fly (Urophora affinis)

Flea beetles (Rhinocyllus conicus, Psylliodes chalcomera), weevil (Ceutorhynchus trimaculatus)

Flea beetle (Rhinocyllus conicus)

Weevils (Ceutorhynchus trimaculatus, Ceuthorrhynchidius horridus, Rhinocyllus conicus), flea beetle (Psylliodes chalcomera) Peacock fly (Tephritis dilacerata)

Tortoise beetle (Cassida rubiginosa), seed weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus), weevil

(Ceuthorrhynchidius horridus)

Casebearer (Coleophora parthenica) and others

Weevil (Ceutorhynchus trimaculatus)

Seed fly (Urophora affinis) and others

Weevil (Ceuthorrhynchidius horridus)

Seed fly (Urophora siruna-seva)

Weevils (Neochetina bruchi, N. eichhorniae), moth (Sameodes albiguttalis) Snout beetle (Nanophyes sp.)

Appendix 2

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