1. A group of cells performing a common function is called a tissue.

2. Apical meristems are found in the vicinity of the tips of roots and stems; the vascular cambium and the cork cambium occur as lengthwise cylinders within roots and stems; intercalary meristems occur in the vicinity of nodes of grasses and related plants.

3. Tissues produced by meristems consist of one to several kinds of cells. They include parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, epidermis, xylem, phloem, periderm, and secretory tissues.

4. Parenchyma cells are thin-walled, while collenchyma cells have unevenly thickened walls that provide flexible support for various plant organs.

5. Two types of sclerenchyma occur—fibers (which are long and tapering) and sclereids (which are short in length); both types have thick walls and are usually dead at maturity.

6. Complex tissues have more than one kind of cell. The principal types are xylem, phloem, epidermis, and periderm.

7. Xylem conducts water and minerals throughout the plant. It consists of a combination of parenchyma, fibers, vessels (tubular channels), tracheids (cells with tapering end walls that overlap), and ray cells (involved in lateral conduction).

8. Phloem conducts primarily dissolved sugars throughout the plant. It is composed of sieve tubes (made up of cells called sieve tube members), companion cells (which apparently regulate adjacent sieve tube members), parenchyma, ray cells, and fibers. Callose aids in plugging injured sieve tubes. Sieve cells, which have overlapping end walls, and adjacent albuminous cells take the place of sieve tube members and companion cells in ferns and cone-bearing trees.

9. The epidermis is usually one cell thick, with fatty cutin (forming the cuticle) within and on the surface of the outer walls. The epidermis may include guard cells that border pores called stomata; root hairs, which are tubular extensions of single cells; other hairs that consist of one to several cells; and glands that secrete protective substances.

10. Periderm, which consists of cork cells and loosely arranged groups of cells comprising lenticels involved in gas exchange, constitutes the outer bark of woody plants.

11. Secretory tissues occur in various places in plants; they secrete substances such as nectar, oils, mucilage, latex, and resins.

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