1. Learn the features common to typical conifer pollen and seed strobili and how they differ.
2. Understand what distinguishes the phyla of living gym-nosperms from one another.
3. Know the significance of seeds and their evolutionary importance.
4. Learn the pine leaf modifications that adapt them to a harsh environment.
Indicate where the following structures occur in the life cycle of a pine tree: archegonia, eggs, sperms with flagella, male and female gametophytes, the sporophyte, integument, vessels, sporocytes, embryo, and pollen grains. Explain the function of each of the following: resin canals, mycorrhizal fungi, nucellus, generative cell, megaspore, microsporocyte.
Identify and learn a use for each of at least 10 different gymnosperms.
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