Pollination occupies center stage in the life cycles of flowering plants, which depend on various aspects of their environment to pollinate their flowers. The most important vehicles of pollination are wind and insects, but pollinators also include birds, mammals, water, and gravity. Those flowering plants that are pollinated by animals have often evolved complex mutualistic relationships with their pollinators— flowers of particular colors, shapes, and fragrances attracting and rewarding them with appropriate amounts of nectar and/or pollen. However, pollinator behavior and pollination is manipulated by some plants through force, chemicals, or sexual enticement. Flowering plants, which are also attractive to people, are increasingly threatened by uncontrolled overcollecting by professional botanists, nursery personnel, and amateurs.
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