Gymnosperm Leaf Secretory Cell

Pacific Islands, plants originating in,

463, 464 Paleobotany, 8 Palisade mesophyll, 115 Palm, 66, 99, 132, 146 Palmately compound leaves, 110 Palmately veined leaves, 112, 113 Pantothenic acid, 189-90 Papaveraceae, 467-68 Papaverine, 468 Papavoviruses, 317 Papillae, 331

Parallel veins in leaves, 112, 113, 114 Paramylon, 341, 342 Paraphyses, 389-90 Para rubber tree, 97, 472-73 Parasitism bacterial, 304 fungi, 357, 373 lichens, 375 roots, 75, 76 Parenchyma, 55-56 cells, 55, 56 tissue in leaves, 115

Parental generation (P), 242, 243 type, 249 Parsimony, principle of, 296 Parsley, 126, 477 Parsnip, 478

Parthenocarpy, 135, 448-49

Particle gun, 260-61

Passage cells, 70

Pasteur, Louis, 30, 317

Pauling, Linus, 232

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), 172

620 Index

Peach, 136, 137, 450 Peach leaf curl, 364 Peanuts, 471 Pear, 34, 57, 148 Peas, 119, 158, 471, 593 black-eyed, 158 dihybrid cross of, 245, 246 linkage mapping of, 249, 250 Mendel's work on, 9, 240^3, 244 monohybrid cross of, 244-45 Pectin, 35 Pediastrum, 328 Pedicel, 132, 134 Pedicularis, 136 Peduncle, 132, 135 Pelagonium, 136 Pellicle, 341, 342 Penicillin, 6, 373-74 Penicillium, 6, 373 Pennycress, alpine, 82 Pennyroyal, 126 PEPcarboxylase, 183-84 Pepos, 138 Pepper, 217, 218, 593

red, 41, 42 Peppermint, 288, 289 Peptide bonds, 24 Perception phase of tropic movements, 207 Perennials, 132 Perfume, 470 Perianth, 133, 135 Pericarp, 136, 339 Pericycle, 71

Periderm, 59, 62, 63, 71, 95 Perigynous, 449, 450 Peristome, 391 Perithecium, 361 Permanent wilting point, 83 Peroxisome, 43 Pests. See also Insects vegetable growing and, 589, 590 Petal, 132, 135

banner petal, 470, 471 lip petal, 484 wing petal, 470, 471 Peter the Great (czar), 362 Petioles, 87, 88, 110 Petrifactions, 418-19 Petrified wood, 418 Petunia, 477 pH, 83, 489 Phacolus, 365 Phacus, 341, 342 Phaeophyta, 337 Phage, 319, 320 Phelloderm, 90 Phellogen, 90 Phenolics, 192 Phenotype, 242, 247-48 Phenylacetic acid (PAA), 201 Pheophytin (Pheo), 180 Pheromones, 360, 544 Phloem, 28, 56, 59-60 components, 59-60 in conifers, 424 function, 164-65 in herbaceous dicotyledonous stems, 91-92 in leaves, 115, 118 in monocotyledonous stems, 97, 99-100

pressure-flow hypothesis, 165-66 primary, 68, 69, 71, 88, 90 in Psilotum, 398 ray, 93, 95 in roots, 68, 69, 71 secondary, 90, 91, 92 in seedless vascular plants, 406 in steles, 90-91

in woody dicotyledonous stems, 93-95, 98 Phloem-loading, 166

Pholiota, 368

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP),

183-84, 185 3-Phosphoglyceric acid, 176-77 Phospholipids, 23, 36-37 Phosphorescence, 178 Phosphorus, 75, 80, 166, 167, 168 Phosphorylation, 189 Photoelectric effect, 177 Photolysis, 180 Photons, 176, 177 Photooxidation, 175 Photoperiodism, 214-15 Photophosphorylation, 180 Photoreceptors, 335 Photorespiration, 43, 175, 183 Photosynthesis, 14, 171, 172-85 in algae, 349 in bacteria, 301, 304, 310 in bryophytes, 383-84, 385, 390 Calvin cycle, 176-77, 182-83 CAM photosynthesis, 162,

184-85, 492 carbon cycle and, 495-96 carbon dioxide in, 173-74 4-carbon pathway, 183-84 chemiosmosis, 180, 182 closer look at, 177-85 essence of, 173-76 importance of, 172 in leaves, 110, 114, 115 in lichens, 375

light-dependent reactions, 176, 177-82

light-independent reactions, 176,

177, 182-85 major steps, 176-77 photolysis, 180 photophosphorylation, 180 photorespiration, 183 photosystems, 178-80, 181 and pizza, 182 plastids in, 41 products, 172 in protista, 342 in Psilotum, 398

respiration and photosynthesis compared, 191 roots, photosynthetic, 73 in seedless vascular plants, 406 water in, 174 Photosynthetic carbon reduction

(PCR), 182 Photosynthetic unit, 176 Photosystems, 178-80, 181 Phototaxic response, 213 Phototorsion, 212 Phototropism, 208, 209 Phragmoplasts, 44, 50, 382 pH scale, 19-20 Phycobilins, 310, 341 Phycocyanin, 310 Phycoerythrin, 310, 312 Phycologists, 336, 341 Phylloclades, 100 Phyllotaxy, 112 Phylum, 290, 291 Physarum, 349 Phytoalexins, 493, 544 Phytochelatins, 82 Phytochromes, 215-16, 217 Phytoremediation, 82 Pignolias, 433 Pileus, 366 Pili, 301, 304 Pilobolus, 359, 360 Pilus, 302, 303 Pine, 427, 510, 512 Afghanistan, 433 aleppo, 433 bristlecone, 89-90 Coulter, 425 distribution, 423

eastern white, 424, 432 gray, 433 jack, 426 Jeffrey, 206, 515 kauri, 433 knobcone, 426, 515 loblolly, 96-97 lodgepole, 426, 433 Merkus, 423 Monterey, 433 needles, 118 pinyon, 433 pitch, 433

ponderosa, 433, 515 products, 433

replacement in burned areas, 501

resin canals, 99

slash, 433

as softwood, 94-95

stone, 433

structure and form, 423-24 sugar, 515 white, 102, 433, 512 white pine blister rust, 370, 433, 512 Wollemi, 437 yellow, 433 Pineapple plants, 185, 217 Pinedrop plants, 75 Pinnae, 410, 412, 413 Pinnately compound leaves, 110 Pinnately veined leaves, 112, 113 Pinophyta, 423-28 Pinus, 99

aristata, 89 longaeva, 89 Pistil, 133, 135, 442, 449, 450 Pitcher plants, 122-23 Pith, 68, 69, 88, 90 Pit membrane, 59 Pits, 58, 59

Plague, bubonic, 307-8 Plain-sawed wood, 104 Plankton, 327 Plantago major, 287, 288 Plantain, 287, 288 Plant anatomy, 8 Plant breeding, 9, 256 Plant community, 490 Plant ecology, 9 Plant geography, 9 Plant morphology, 9 Plant names, 287-97, 519-41 Plant physiology, 8-9 Plant press, 454-56 Plants, 382

biodiversity, loss of, 504 biological controls, 542-44 breeding, 256-58 climax vegetation, 499 collecting and preserving, 453-58 companion planting, 544-48 cultivated plants (see Cultivated plants; Dicots; Monocots) defense, natural, 493, 494 desert, 117-18, 119, 185, 514 dioecious, 450 distribution, 491-92 domestication, 254-56 ecosysems, interactions in, 493-94 edible, wild, 549-53 of grasslands, 512-13 hallucinogenic plants, 569-70 heirloom varieties, 258 historical overview, 382 human and animal dependence on, 4-7

hyperaccumulating, 82 interactions among herbivores and,

493-94 interplanting, 544 long-day, 214

medicinal plants (see Medicinal plants)

monoecious, 450 of mountain and coastal forest biome, 515 names, 287-97, 519-41 poisonous plants and fungi, 553-56 propagation (see Vegetative propagation)

rare and endangered species, 458 study, diversification of plant, 8-9 taxonomy, 8-9

of temperate deciduous forest, 512 of tundra, 509 Plant systematics, 9 Plant viruses, 318-19 Plasma membrane, 32, 33, 36-37, 392 Plasmids, 260, 301 Plasmodesmata, 35, 50, 318 Plasmodial slime molds, 348-50 Plasmodium, 348-49, 350 Plasmolysis, 157, 158, 392 Plastids, 40-42 Plastocyanin, 180 Plato, 287

Pleuropneumonialike organisms

(PPLOs), 308 Pliny, 469 Plovers, 510 Plumule, 147, 148 Pneumatophores, 72-73 Poaceae, 480-81 Podocarps, 427, 428, 436 Poinsettia, 121-22, 214, 215, 473 Poison ivy, 553 Poisonous plants. See Toxins Polar covalent bonds, 18 Polar molecules, 17, 161 Polar movement, 201 Poles in meiosis, 224, 226 spindle fiber, 48 Pollen cones, 424-25, 437 Pollen drops, 426 Pollen grains, 133

in angiosperms, 443, 444-47 in gymnosperms, 422, 425, 426, 427 Pollen tubes, 426, 427, 445, 447 Pollination, 447, 450-53 of angiosperms, 445, 447 cross-pollinating plants, breeding,

256, 257-58 of pines, 426, 427 self-pollination, 447 Pollinia, 280-81, 485 Pollution, 4, 7

acid deposition, 488-89 bioremediation and, 309 Boston fern as formaldehyde filter, 415 global warming and, 502 lichen sensitivity to, 377 ozone depletion and, 504 pine tree damage from smog, 433 water, 489 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 235-36 Polymers, 21 Polypeptides, 23-24 Polyploidy, 239-40, 241, 282 Polypodiophyta, 397, 410-17 Polypodium, 413 Polysaccharides, 21-22 Polysiphonia, 338-39, 341 Polytrichum commune, 392 Polyunsaturated oil, 22 Pomes, 138, 139 Ponds blooms, 313, 314 in hydrosere succession, 499-500 succession, 487 water cycle and, 495 wetland ecology and, 489 Poplar, propogation experiment, 2-3 Poplar leaf spot, 370

Inde:

Poppy, 67, 97, 144, 447 California, 149 Family, 447 opium, 2, 468 prickly, 468 Populations, 490-91

world, 4, 7 Postelsia, 325

Potassium, 166, 167, 168, 346 Potato, 100, 119, 214, 241, 593 genetic variation, 257 late blight of, 352 transgenic, 261-62, 263 white, 477 Potential energy, 20 Potentials, 157 Powderpuff flower, 471 Powdery mildew, 363 PQ (plastoquinone), 180 Prairies, 512

Prayer plant, sleep movements, 211-12 Praying mantis, as biological control,

542-43 Precipitation acid rain, 19, 76, 488-89 in nitrogen cycle, 498 in plant species distribution, 491-92 in water cycle, 495 Precursors, 199 Predators, 494 Preprophase band, 45 Press, plant, 454-56 Pressure-flow hypothesis, 165-66 Pressure potential, 157 Prickles, 102, 119, 120 Priestley, Joseph, 177 Primary consumers, 492 Primary growth, 54 Primary meristems, 54, 88, 91 Primary phloem, 68, 69, 71, 88, 90 Primary roots, 66-67 Primary structure of a protein, 24 Primary tissues, 54, 55 Primary xylem, 68, 69, 71, 88, 90 Primers, 235

Primordium, 88, 91, 110, 132 Principles, hypotheses and, 8 Prions, 321 Proboscidia, 141 Procambrium, 54, 55, 68, 88, 91 Prochlorobacteria, 313, 314-15 Prochloron, 314 Prochlorophyta, 314 Prochlorothrix, 315 Producers, 450, 492-93 Progametangia, 358, 359 Prokaryotic cells, 32, 301 Proline, 159 Promoter region, 237 Pronghorns, 512 Propagation plant (see Vegetative propagation) seed, 265-66 Propagative roots, 72 Propagules, 259 Prophase, 45, 47-49, 223-24,

225, 226 Proplastids, 42 Prop roots, 73, 74 Protectant, seed, 265 Protective layer, 126 Proteins, 21, 23 in DNA, 232 structure, 24, 25 transport proteins, 37, 159 Protein sequencer, 260 Prothalli, 412-13, 414 Protista, Kingdom, 326-27

algae (see Algae; Diatoms; Green algae)

compared to fungi, 356-57 slime molds, 348-50 water molds, 350-52

Protoctista, 290 Protoctista, Kingdom, 290, 291 Protoderm, 54, 55, 68, 88, 91 Protonema, 385

in bryophytes, 388, 393 Protons, 15 Protoplasm, 32, 496 Protoplast fusion, 259 Protostele, 90 Protozoans, 348 Prymnesiophyta, 343-44, 345 Pseudomonas, 363-64 cepacia, 309 fluorescens, 309 Pseudoplasmodium, 350 Pseudotsuga menziesii, 28 Psilophyton, 415 Psilotophyta, 397-98, 399 Psilotum, 397-98, 399 reproduction, 398, 399 structure and form, 398 Psittacosis, 306 Ptarmigans, 510 Pteridology, 9 Pteridosperms, 422, 443 Puccoons, 462 Puffballs, 365, 368, 369 Pulvini, 210 Pumpkin, 72, 119, 479

Family, 146, 149, 450, 478-79 Punctuated equilibrium, 279 Puncture vine, 145 Punnett, R.C., 249 Punnett square, 245, 246 Pure-line selection, 257 Purines, 232, 233 Purple laver, 346-47 Purple nonsulfur bacteria, 304 Purple sulfur bacteria, 304 Pyrenoids, 328 Pyrethrum, 480 Pyrimidines, 232, 233 Pyrodictium, 316 Pyruvic acid, 186, 187, 189

Quantitative trait loci (QTL), 248 Quartersawed wood, 104 Quaternary structure of a protein, 24, 25 Quiescence, 217, 218 Quillworts, 397, 403-5

Rabbits cottontail, 512 jackrabbit, 512 Rabbits, Canary Island, 279 Raccoons, 512 Rachis, 110

Radial symmetry, 449, 470, 471 Radicle, 66, 148 Radioactive elements, 276 Radioactive isotopes, 16 Radioactive waste, 82 Radish, 69, 468 Raffesia, 131, 133 Rain. See also Precipitation acid rain, 19, 76, 488-89 Rain forest, tropical, 515-17 Ramblers, 102 Ranunculaceae, 465-67 Ranunculus, 70 Raphanus, 69 Raphe, 336

Rare and endangered plant species, 458 Raspberry, 267, 470 black, 115 prickles, 120 Rats, kangaroo, 514 Rat snakes, black, 512

Rattlesnakes, 514 Ray cells, 59 Ray initials, 59 Rays phloem ray, 93, 95 vascular rays, 93 xylem ray, 93, 95 Reaction-center molecule, 179-80 Receptacle (algal), 338 Receptacle (flower), 132, 135, 449 Recombinant DNA, 259 Recombinant types, 249 Recycling, 4, 5 Red algae, 338-41 Redbud, 279-80 eastern, 279-80 western, 279-80 Red Sea, 312 Red tides, 342-43

Reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide

(FADH2), 187, 188, 190-91 Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), 187, 188-91

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. See NADPH (Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) Reducing reaction, 176 Reduction, 172 Redwood, 34, 424, 515

coastal, 3, 98, 428, 434, 515 General Sherman tree, 428 giant, 424, 428, 434 Region of cell division in roots, 67-68 Region of differentiation, 68 Region of elongation, 68 Region of maturation, 68-72 Regular symmetry, 449, 470, 471 Reindeer, bryophytes on, 383 Reproduction, 13-14 apomixis, 282-83 asexual (see Asexual reproduction) cellular, 44-50 cloning, 260-62, 263 conjugation, 302-3, 331 by fission, 302, 313 by gemmae, 386, 387 sexual (see Sexual reproduction) Reproductive isolation, 279 Reproductive leaves, 121 Resin, 423, 433, 434 Resin canals, 95, 99, 423, 424 Resolution, 30

Respiration, 14, 111, 171, 186-94, 187, 191 aerobic, 186, 187, 188 anaerobic, 186, 187, 188 carbon cycle and, 495-96 cellular, 42, 172

citric acid cycle, 187, 188, 189-90 electron transport system, 187,

190-91 essence of, 186 fermentation, 186, 187 glycolysis, 186, 187, 188, 189 major steps, 186-88 oxidative phosphorylation, 190-91 photosynthesis and respiration compared, 191 rate, factors affecting, 189 Resurrection plant, 404 Reticulate venation, 112 Retroviruses, 320 R group, 23, 24 Rhizines, 376 Rhizobium bacteria, 78 Rhizoids, 357

in bryophytes, 383, 384, 386,

389, 391 in Psilotum, 398 Rhizomes, 100, 101

propagation by, 268, 269

in Psilotum, 398, 399 seedless vascular plants, 400, 407, 415 Rhizophora mangle, 151 Rhizopus, 358, 359 arrhizus, 359 nigricans, 359 Rhodophyta, 338-41, 345 Rhodopsin, 309-10

bacterial, 315 Rhubarb, 126 Rhymia, 398

Ribonucleic acid. See RNA (ribonucleic acid) Ribose sugars, 236 Ribosomes, 39, 237, 301 Ribulose biphosphate (RuBP), 176, 177 Rice, 254, 480

"foolish seedling" disease, 202 Rice-paper plant, 72 Ricinus, 149 Rickettsias, 308 Rivers water cycle and, 495 wetland ecology and, 489 RNA polymerase, 237 RNA (Ribonucleic acid), 26 messenger RNA, 237 ribosomal RNA, 237 in ribosomes, 39 structure, 236-37 synthesis, 237

in transcription process, 236-37 transfer RNA, 237 in translation process, 237-38, 240 viral, 317, 319 in viroids, 321 Robertson, Merle, 489 Robinia pseudo-acacia, 60 Rock mosses, 384, 389, 498 Rockweed, common, 338, 339 Rodents, in taiga, 510 Rohrer, Heinrich, 31 Roosevelt, Theodore (president, US), 503 Root cap, 67

Root hairs, 61-62, 66, 68-69 Root hair zone, 68, 69 Root knots, 78 Root pressure, 111, 161 Roots, 54, 66-83

adventitious, 66, 67, 100, 101, 266

buttress, 75, 76

cell division, region of, 67-68

characteristics, 66

contractile, 73-75

development, 66-67

elongation, region of, 68

feeder, 66

as food, 78

lateral (branch), 66, 71 maturation, region of, 68-72 mycorrhizal, 75-76, 77 nodules, 76, 78 parasitic, 75, 76 primary, 66-67

relevance of, to humans, 78, 79 root cap, 66 secondary, 66-67 specialized, 72-75 structure, 67-72 Rootstock, 268 Rorippa armoracia, 72 Rosa. See Rose Rosaceae, 469-70 Rose, 266, 470 damask, 470 European rock, 208 Family, 469-70 Sitka, 469 Rosin, 433 Rotenone, 78

Royal Botanical Gardens (Australia), 437

622 Index

Rubber, 472-73

Rubisco (RuBP

carboxylase/oxygenase), 182 Rubus, 267 Rudbeckia, 136, 451 Runners, 100, 101 Russula mushroom, 365 Rusts, 369-70 Rutabaga, 468 Rye ergotism in, 361, 364 translocations of, 239 Ryegrass, 66, 69

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 361 Sac fungi, 360-64 Sadleria cyatheoides, 197, 396 Saffron, 483 Sage

Clary's annual, 122 Jerusalem, 143 St. Anthony's Fire, 362 Saintpaulia, 266 Salix, 71 Salmonella, 306 Salsify, 480 Salt, 18-19, 159 Salt bacteria, 315 Salvia viridis, 122 Salvinia, 412 Samara, 142 Sambucus, 63 Sands, 80-81

Sanguinaria canadensis, 467-68 Sanitation, diseases and, 306-7 Sansevieria, 99, 126, 266, 483 Santonin, 480

Saprobic organisms, 304, 357

Saprolegnia, 351

Saprophytes, 75, 443, 484

Sapwood, 94, 98

Sarcina, 311

Sargasso Sea, 338

Sargassum, 338

Sarracenia, 123

Sarsaparilla, 481-82

Sassafras, 467

Satellites, 48

Saturated fat, 22

Sausage tree, African, 211

Saussure, Nicholas Theodore de, 177

Scala Naturae, 274

Scanning electron microscope (SEM),

31, 46-47 Scanning tunneling microscope, 31 Scarification, 148 Scarify, 218 Scenedesmus, 328 Schizocarp, 142 Schizomycetes, 302 Schleiden, Matthias, 30 Schull, G.H., 258 Schwann, Theodor, 30 Science, 7

Scientific creationists, 283

Scientific method, 7

Scientific names, listing of common and, 519-41 Scion, 268 Sclereids, 56, 57 Sclerenchyma cells, 119 Sclerenchyma tissue, 56, 57 Scofield Reference Bible, 283 Scopolamine, 127, 477 Scouring rushes, 397, 405-10 Scytonema hofmannii, 314 Sea lettuce, 334, 345 Sea palms, 325 Sea squirts, 314

Seaweeds, 327, 337-41, 345. See also Green algae; Red algae agar, 347-48 as food, 345, 346-47 Secale africanum, 239 Secale cereale, 239 Secale montanum, 239 Secale silvestre, 239 Secale vavilovii, 239 Secondary cell walls, 35, 36 Secondary consumers, 492 Secondary growth, 54 Secondary roots, 66-67 Secondary structure of a protein, 24, 25 Secondary tissues, 54, 55, 68 Second filial generation (F2), 242, 243 Second law of thermodynamics, 20 Secretory cells, 62-63 Secretory tissues, 62-63 Sedge, 145, 146, 500 Sedimentary rocks, 80 Seed coat in angiosperms, 443, 444, 448 in gymnosperms, 422, 426 Seed leaf, 67 Seed plants angiosperms (see Angiosperms) gymnosperms (see Gymnosperms) historical overview, 422-23 Seeds, 133, 147-51, 422 angiosperm, 422, 447-48 apomixis, 448-49 dispersal, 132^7 germination (see Germination) Ginkgo, 429

gymnosperm, 426, 427-28, 432-33 hybrid, 258, 265

in hydrosere succession, 499-500 importation, regulation of, 147 longevity, 149-51 orchid, 485

parthenocarpy, 448-49 pine, 426, 427, 432-33 propagation, 265-66 redwoods (see Redwood) seed plants (see Angiosperms;

Gymnosperms; Seed plants) from sexual reproduction, 222 structure, 147^8 viability, 148, 265 in xerosere succession, 498-99 yew, 427, 428 Seed Savers Exchange (Iowa), 258 Selaginella, 399, 401-3 Selenium, 166 Self-fertilizing, peas as, 241 Self-pollinating plants, breeding, 256-57 Semi-conservative replication, 234 Semipermeable membrane, 156 Senebier, Jean, 177 Senescence, 205-6 Sensitive plant, 14, 210-11, 471 Sepals, 132, 135

scanning electron micrograph of, 46 Separation layer, 126 Sequoia National Park (California), 428 Sequoia sempervirens, 3 Sernander, 145 Sessile leaves, 110 Seta, 386, 387, 388, 391 Sexual reproduction, 222-23

in algae, 329-33, 334, 335, 338-39 alternation of generations, 226-28 in angiosperms, 443-48 in bryophytes, 386-87, 388-91, 393 in ferns, 410-14 in fungi, 358-59, 360-61, 365, 366-67

in gymnosperms, 422-23, 424-28 in lichens, 377 in seedless vascular plants,

401-3, 405 in water molds, 351

Sexual spore, 228 Shade leaves, 116-17 Shade trees, 126 Shelf fungi, 365, 368 Shepherd's purse, 469 Shiitake mushrooms, 372 Shikimic acid pathway, 192 Shoot system, 87 Short-day plants, 214 Shoyu, 374 Sierra Club, 503 Sieve plates, 60 Sieve tube members, 60, 90 Sieve tubes, 60 Signal transduction, 199 Silent Spring, 9 Silibinin, 371 Silica, 127, 405 Silicles, 138, 139 Silicon, 166 Siliques, 138, 139 Silybum marianum, 371 Silymarin, 371 Simple fleshy fruits, 136-37 Simple pits, 58

Sink, in pressure-flow hypothesis,

165-66 Sipe, M., 544 Siphonosteles, 90 Sister chromatids, 49 Skototropism, 210 Slab cut wood, 104 Sleep movements, 211-12 Slime molds, 348-50 cellular, 350 classification of, 290 movement, 213-14 plasmodial, 348-50 Sloths, 516 Smallpox, 317 Smilacina racemosa, 136 Smilax, 69, 483 Smuts, 368-69 Snake plant, 266 Snakeroot, seed dispersal, 143 Snakes, 512, 516

king, 514 Snapdragon, 247 Snowplants, 443 Soaproot, California, 484 Socrates, 478 Sodium, 15, 18-19, 166 Sodium chloride, formation, 18-19 Sodium hydroxide, 19 Softwood, 95 Soil, 78-83 climate, 80 field capacity of, 83 mineral composition, 80-81 organic composition, 80 parent material, 80 pH, 83

in plant species distribution, 491 profile, 79 structure, 81 texture, 80-81 topography, 80 water in soil, 81, 83 Solanaceae, 477 Solanine, 477 Solar energy, 110, 174-75 Solar tracking, 212-13 Solids, 15 Solvent, 156 Somatic hybrids, 259 Somatic mutation, 238 Soredia, 377 Sorghum, 481 Sori, 411, 412 Sorrel, 207

redwood, 211 Source, in pressure-flow hypothesis, 165-66

South America, plants originating in,

463, 464 South Asia, plants originating in,

463, 464 Soviet Union (former), Chernobyl nuclear accident, 489 Soybean, 215, 261-62, 264, 471, 590 Spanish moss, 134 Sparrows, 514 Spearmint, 288, 289 Speciation, 239 Species, 288-89

evolution, methods of, 279-81 evolution within species, 277-79 Species Plantarum, 9, 288, 289, 294 Specific epithet, 291, 294 S period, 45 Spermatangia, 339, 341 Spermatium, 339, 341 Spermatogenous cells, 426, 427 Sperm cells, 390 in algae, 332

in angiosperms, 445, 446, 447 of bryophytes, 386, 387, 390,

391, 392 in ferns, 412, 413 in gymnosperms, 426, 427, 429 in horsetails, 408 in quillworts, 405 in sexual reproduction, 222 in spike mosses, 401-3 in whisk ferns, 398-99 Spices, 5, 467

from leaves, 126 spice plants, listing of, 571-73 Spike mosses, 399, 401-3 Spinach, 126, 593 Spindle, 44, 49 Spindle fibers, 48, 223, 224 Spines, 102, 119 Spiraling movements, 206, 207 Spirea, 267 Spirilli bacteria, 303 Spirillum, 311 Spirogyra, 40, 178, 330-31 Spirulina, 312, 314 Sponge, 348

vegetable, 479 Spongy mesophyll, 115 Spontaneous generation, 30 Sporangia, 382

in ferns, 411, 412, 413, 414 in fungi, 358-59, 360 in ground pines, 400 in Psilotum, 398, 399 in slime molds, 348, 349, 350 in spike mosses, 401, 402, 403 in whisk ferns, 398, 399 Sporangiophone, 407 Sporangiophores, 358, 359, 360, 407, 408 Spore print, 367 Spores in alternation of generations, 228 in bryophytes, 384, 387, 391, 393 in ferns, 411-14 fungi, 358, 359, 360, 362, 365,

368, 370 in horsetails, 407-8, 409 in protista, 349, 350 in spike mosses, 401, 402, 403 Sporocytes, 227, 228

of bryophytes, 386, 387, 388 in ferns, 411-12 in ground pines, 400 in horsetails, 407, 408 in Psilotum, 399 in spike mosses, 402, 403 Sporophylls in gymnosperms, 422 seedless vascular plants, 400, 402 Sporophytes, 227, 228

in bryophytes, 384, 388, 389, 390, 391

Inde:

in gymnosperms, 422-23 in quillworts, 404, 405 seedless vascular plants, 401, 402, 403, 405, 410, 412 Spring wood, 93 Spruce, 434, 435, 510 black, 434 red, 103, 434, 435 Sitka, 434 white, 434 Spurge, 109

African, convergent evolution and, 276 barrel, 277 candelilla, 473 Family, 472-73 Squash, 451, 479, 593-94 Squawroot, 478 Squill, 481, 483 Squirrel corn plants, 280, 281 Squirrels, gray, 512 Stamen, 133, 135, 449, 450 in Binomial System of

Nomenclature, 289 Stanley, Wendell, 317, 318 Stapelia, 451, 452 Staphylococcus, 306, 311 Starch digestion of, 192, 194 grains, 41

as polysaccharides, 21-22 Statospores, 335 Steershead, 1 Stele, 90-91 Stemonitis, 348 Stems, 54, 87-105, 106-7

external form of woody twig, 87-88 herbaceous dicotyledonous stems,

91-92 in horsetails, 406, 407 monocotyledonous stems, 97, 99-100

origin and development, 88, 90 specialized, 100-102 stele, 90-91

tissue patterns in, 90-100 woody dicotyledonous stems (see Wood) Stenogramme, 340 Stereomicroscopes, 30, 31 Sterigmata, 367 Sterile cells, 426, 427 Steward, F.C., 198 Sticky ends, 260, 261 Stigma, 133, 135

scanning electron micrograph of, 46 Stimuli, response to, 14 Stinkhorns, 364-65 Stipe, 337, 366 Stipitococcus, 335 Stipules, 87-88, 102, 110 Stipule scars, 88 Stodola, Frank, 202 Stolons, 100

Stomata, 61, 111, 112, 113-15 in bryophytes, 388, 389 in transpiration, 160, 161, 162-64 Stomatal apparatus, 111 Stone cells, 56 Stonecrops, 214, 508 Stoneseed, 462 Storage leaves, 119-20 Storage proteins, 24 Stratification, 218 Stratospore, 334, 335 Strawberry, 100, 222 Streptobacillus, 311 Streptococcus, 311

pneumoniae, 300 String-of-pearls, 113 Strobel, Gary, 363 Strobili. See Cones (Strobili) Stroma, 40

Structure, living organisms and, 13

Style, 133, 135

Stylets, 164-65

Subculturing, 270

Subsidiary cell, 163

Subsoil, 80

Substrate, enzyme, 24, 25 Succession, 393, 498-502 fire ecology, 501-2 hydrosere, 499-501 pond, 487

primary succession, 498-99 secondary, 498, 501-2 xerosere, 498-99 Succulent, 118, 119, 514 Suckers, 72 Sucrose, 21 Sufu, 359 Sugar in assimilation, 192 cleavage, 189 in digestion, 192 as disaccharide, 21 in phloem-loading, 165, 166 plants, production of, 172 Sugar cane, 480-81 Sulfate, reduction in chloroplasts, 185 Sulfur bacteria, 304

as essential element for growth,

166, 167, 168 as macronutrient, 166 from organic matter, 80 in photophosphorylation, 180 Sulfur dioxide, 488 Sulfuric acid, 488-89 Sumac, 125 Summer wood, 93 Sundew plants, 123, 124 Sunflower, 142, 143, 255 Family, 479-80, 512 Superfund, 490 Sutin, 23

Swamps, wetland ecology and, 489 Swarm cells, 349-50 Sweet potato, 72, 254 Symbiotic relationships, lichens and, 375 Sympatric species, 280 Synconium, 143 Synechococcus, 310 Synergids, 443, 445, 448 Syngamy, 228 Synthesis, 21 period, 45 Syphilis, 307 Systematists, 294

Table salt, formation, 18-19

Tachinidae, 543

Tachinid flies, 543

Taiga, 510-11

Tamarack, 510

Tamarisk, 66

Tanacetum vulgare, 136

Tansy, 136

Tapetal cells, 443

Taproot, 66

Taro plant, 164

Tarragon, 480

Tarweed, western, 62, 221

Taxic movements, 213

Taxodium distichum, 73

Taxol, 436

Taxonomists, 294

Taxus, 426-27

TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzopara-dioxin), 201

T-DNA (transfer-DNA), 260 Tea, 128

Telophase, 48, 49-50, 224, 225, 226 Tempeh, 359

Temperate deciduous forest, 511-12 Temperatures conversion scale, 597 and growth, 217

home gardening and, 577, 578, 589 photosynthesis and, 174-75 in plant species distribution, 491-92

respiration, temperature as factor affecting rate of, 189 seed germination and, 149 Tendrils, 102, 118-19, 206-7 Teonanacatl mushrooms, 371 Teosinte, 256 Terns, arctic, 510 Terpenoids, 192

Tertiary structure of a protein, 24, 25 Tetanus, 307

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 127 Tetrapanaxpapyrifera, 72 Tetraploid cells, 227 Tetrasporangia, 340, 341 Tetrasporophyte, 338, 340, 341 Thallus in brown algae, 337 bryophytes, 385, 386, 388 in lichens, 375, 376, 377 in liverworts, 387 Thecae, 342 Theobroma cacao, 461 Theophrastus, 287-88, 449 Theories, hypotheses and, 8 Thermal cycler, 235 Thermodynamics, 20 Thermoperiodism, 217 Thermoplasma, 316 Thermoproteus, 316 Thermotropism, 210 Thigmomorphogenesis, 204 Thigmotropism, 210 Thistle, 480

Canada, 72 Thlaspi caerulescens, 82 Thoreau, Henry D., 410 Thorns, 102, 119, 120 Thylakoid membrane, 179, 392 Thylakoids, 41, 180, 181, 182 Thymine, 232, 233 Tidepools, 491 Tilia, 57, 93, 94, 165 Tillandsia, 134

Time, geologic time scale, 400 Ti plant, 154 Tip layering, 267 Tissue, 54-63

apical meristems, 54 complex tissues, 56, 58-63 culture, 269-70 imbibition, 157-58, 159 intercalary meristems, 55 lateral meristems, 54 meristems, 54-55, 266 simple, 55-56, 57 stems, tissue patterns in, 90-100 Tissue culture events, 259 Tmesipteris, 398

Toads, as biological controls, 543 Toadstools, 364-65 Tobacco, 43, 127, 209, 214, 477 Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV),

317, 318 Tolba, Mostafa, 502 Tomato, 62, 148, 218, 477, 478, 594 Tonoplast, 43 Topsoil, 80 Torreya, 426-27 Tortoises, 144-45, 218 Tortula ruralis, 392 Totipotency, 269

Touch-me-nots, 146 Taucodendron diversilobum, 553 radicans, 553 Toxins, 2

acid rain, 488-89 aflatoxin, 375 dinoflagellate, 343 false morel mushrooms, 361 in hazardous waste, 489-90 in legumes, 471

in poisonous mushrooms, 370-72 poisonous plants and fungi,

553-56 water contamination by, 489 Trace, 90

Tracheids, 58, 59, 90 Transcript molecule, 237 Transduction, 207, 303 Transfer, 55-56 Transformation, 260, 303 Transgenic plants, 259-64, 265 Translocation, 164, 234 Transmission electron microscope, 31, 32

Transpiration, 111, 157, 160, 161, 495

regulation of, 162-64 Transplantation, vegetable, 588 Transposable genetic element, 231-32 Transposition, 231 Traumotropism, 210 Travertine, 311 Tree-of-heaven, 72 Trees. See also Wood; tree names climatic history of a tree,

93, 96-97 of desert, 512 shade trees, 126 of taiga, 510 of temperate deciduous forest, 512 of tropical rain forest, 515-17 aribulus terrestris, 145 Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) (citric acid cycle), 187, 188 Trichloroethylene (TCE), 309 Trichocyst, 343 arichodesmium, 310 Trichogrammatidae, 543 Trichogyne, 339 Trillium, 145, 512 Trinitrotoluene, bioremediation and, 309 Triploid cells, 227 arochodendron aralioides, 57 Tropical fig tree, 73, 75 Tropical mangrove, 73 Tropical rainforest biome, 9, 515-17 disappearing, 3 Tropisms, 207

True anaerobic respiration, 188 True bacteria, 304-10 True berry, 137 Truffles, 360, 361 Tschermak, Eric von, 240 Tubers, 100, 101, 268, 269 Tubulins, 44 Tularemia, 308

Tulip bulbs, reproduction by, 269 Tulip tree, 113, 512 Tumbleweed, seed dispersal, 144 Tundra, 509-10 Turgid, 157 Turgor movements, 210-13 pressure, 157, 162-64 Turnip, 468 Turpentine, 433 Twinflowers, 145 Twining movements, 206-7 Tyloses, 94 aypha, 82

624 Index u

Ubiquinol, 190

Ulothrix, 40, 328, 329-30 Ulva, 334

Undulant fever, 307 Unicorn plant, 141, 145 Unisexual plants, 388 United States desert in, 514 grassland in, 512, 513 hazardous waste and, 489, 490 mountain and coastal forest biome, 515 temperate deciduous forest in, 511-12 Unsaturated oil, 22 Upas tree, 2 Upper cortex, 376 Uracil, 236-37 Uranium, half-life, 276 Urediniospores, 370 Ussher, James, 283 Utricularia, 14, 125

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