Figure 2.12 Structural formula and model of the amino acid glycine.
functional group is called the amino group (-NH2); the other, which is acid, is called the carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids are linked to other amino acids by peptide bonds, which are covalent bonds formed between the carboxyl carbon of one amino acid and the nitrogen of the amino group of another, a molecule of water being removed in the process. The makeup of the R group is distinctive for each of the 20 amino acids. Some R groups (which can consist of just a single hydrogen atom or, in others, a complex ring structure) are polar while some are not. The general structural formula for an amino acid is
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.