Learning Online

Visit our web page at www.mhhe.com/botany for interesting case studies, practice quizzes, current articles, and animations within the Online Learning Center to help you understand the material in this chapter. You'll also find active links to these topics:

Characteristics of Plants Flowers

Flowers and Fruits Fruits and Seeds Coevolution Ornamental Plants

Economic and Ecological Importance of Gymnosperms

Economic and Ecological Importance of Angiosperms

Origins of Agriculture

Temperate Fruits and Nuts

Tropical Fruits and Nuts

Cereal Grains and Forage Grasses

Additional Reading

Barton, L. V. 1992. Seed preservation and longevity. New York: State Mutual Book and Periodical Service.

Baskin, C. C., and J. M. Baskin. 1998. Seeds: Ecology, biogeogra-phy, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Beattie, A. J. 1990. Seed dispersal by ants. Scientific American 263(2): 76.

Bell, A. D. 1991. Plant form: An illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bold, H. C., et al. 1997. Morphology of plants and fungi, 5th ed. Old Tappan, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

Boyston, A. 1999. Flowers, fruits, and seeds. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library.

Duffus, C. M., and J. C. Slaughter. 1980. Seeds and their uses (reprint). Ann Arbor, MI: Books Demand.

Endress, P. K. 1996. Diversity and evolutionary biology of tropical flowers. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kigel, J., and G. Galili (Eds.). 1995. Seed development and germination. New York: Dekker, Marcel.

Murray, D. (Ed.). 1987. Seed dispersal. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Nau, J. 1999. Ball culture guide: The encyclopedia of seed germination, 3d ed. Batavia, IL: Ball.

Raven, P., et al. 1999. Biology of plants, 6th ed. New York: Worth.

Van Rheede-Van Oudtshoorn, K., and M. W. Van Rooyen. 1999. Dispersal biology of desert plants. New York: SpringerVerlag.

Biology Plants Floating Water
Floating leaves of a giant water lily (Victoria amazonica), which sometimes attain a diameter of 2 meters (6.5 feet). The larger leaves are capable of supporting, without sinking, the weight of a child.

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