How To Determine The Origin Tendrils And Spines

Since tendrils and spines can be either modified leaves or modified stems, how might you determine the origin of a given specimen?

Learning Onli

Visit our web page at for interesting case studies, practice quizzes, current articles, and animations within the Online Learning Center to help you understand the material in this chapter. You'll also find active links to these topics:

Characteristics of Plants Architectural Pattern of Plants Leaves and the Movement of Water Economic Uses of Leaves Carnivorous Plants Photosynthesis

Economic and Ecological Importance of Angiosperms

Additional Reading

Dale, J. E. 1992. How do leaves grow? Bioscience 42: 323-32.

Juniper, B. E., et al. 1989. The carnivorous plants. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lanner, R. 1990. Autumn leaves. Minnetonka, MN: Creative Publishing International.

Percy, K. E., et al. (Eds.). 1994. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Prance, G. T. 1985. Leaves: The formation, characteristics and uses of hundreds of leaves found in all parts of the world. New York: Crown.

Roth, I. 1984. Stratification of tropical forests as seen in leaf structure. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publications.

Steeves, T. A., and I. M. Sussex. 1989. Patterns in plant development, 2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Vitole, A. T. 1997. Leaves in magic, myth, and medicine. New York: Stewart, Tabori, and Chang.

Zeiger, E., et al. (Eds.). 1987. Stomatal function. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Stern-Jansky-Bidlack: I 8. Flowers, Fruits, and I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Introductory Plant Biology, Seeds Companies, 2003

Ninth Edition

Waterlily Nymphaea

A water-lily flower (Nymphaea sp.).

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