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Pines

Pinus spp.

Cambium, young phloem, and seeds edible; tea from fresh needles rich in vitamin C

Pipsissewa

Chimaphila umbellata

Drink made from boiled roots and leaves (cool after boiling)

Plantain

Plantago spp.

Young leaves eaten in salads or as cooked vegetable

Poke

Phytolacca americana

Fresh young shoots boiled like asparagus (Caution: Older parts of plant poisonous)

Prairie turnip

Psoralea esculenta

Turniplike roots cooked like potatoes

Prickly pear

Opuntia spp.

Fruits and young stems peeled and eaten raw or cooked

Psyllium

Plantago ovata

Seed husks widely used as a bulking laxative

Purple avens

Geum rivale

Liquid from boiled root has chocolate-like flavor

Purslane

Portulaca oleracea

Leaves and stems cooked like spinach

Quackgrass

Elytrigia repens

Noxius weed whose rhizomes can be used as emergency food

Raspberry (wild)

Rubus spp.

Fruits edible raw or in pies, jams, and jellies

Redbud

Cercis spp.

Flowers used in salads; cooked young pods edible

River-beauty

Epilobium latifolium

Young shoots and fleshy leaves can be cooked as a vegetable

Rose (wild)

Rosa spp.

Fruits (hips) exceptionally rich in vitamin C; hips can be eaten raw, pureed, or candied

Salal

Gaultheria procumbens, G. shallon

Ripe berries edible raw, dried, or preserved

Salmonberry

Rubus spectabilis

Fruits edible raw, dried, or cooked

Salsify

Tragopogon spp.

Roots edible raw or cooked

Saltbush

Atriplex spp.

Seeds nutritious (Caution: On certain soils, plants can absorb toxic amounts of selenium)

Sassafras

Sassafras albidum

Tea from roots (Caution: Large quantities have narcotic effect); leaves and pith used for Louisiana filé

Serviceberry

Amelanchier spp.

All fruits edible (mostly bland)

Sheep sorrel

Rumex acetosella

Raw leaves have a pleasant sour taste; leaves can be used as seasoning in

other dishes other dishes

Useful and Poisonous Plants, Fungi, an d A! gae

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